Considered Service-specific journals were Journal of Service Research, Journal of Service Management, Journal of Services Marketing, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, Service Industries Journal, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, and Service Science.
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Béal, M. and Y. Grégoire (2021): How Do Observers React to Companies’ Humorous Responses to Online Public Complaints?, Journal of Service Research, (), pp.1
The current research examines the way that observing consumers react when companies use humor to address online public complaints on social media. Drawing on, first, a field study using companies’ humorous responses on social media and, second, on two main scenario-based experiments, we use benign violation theory to capture simultaneously the unfavorable effect (i.e., inferred negative motives) and the favorable effect (i.e., humor appreciation) of employing humor in a public complaining context. The results reveal that online observers respond more favorably (in terms of likes, retweets, and purchase intentions) when firms use affiliative humor (e.g., laughing
Gäthke, J., K. Gelbrich and S. Chen (2021): A Cross-National Service Strategy to Manage Product Returns: E-Tailers’ Return Policies and the Legitimating Role of the Institutional Environment, Journal of Service Research, (), pp.1
Global e-tailers face product returns from across the world, but research on service strategies for successful product return handling in culturally diverse markets is virtually nonexistent. This study examines the drivers of product return–related customer behavior across Western and Eastern cultures. Using a multimethod approach comprising two surveys and one experiment, results from the major Western (United States) and Eastern (China) retail markets show varying patterns for product return behavior and a uniform pattern for repurchase intention. Specifically, return policies that imply high effort restrictiveness decrease product returns in Western but not Eastern cultures, while the perceived customer-oriented institutional environment increases product returns in Eastern but not Western cultures. For repurchase intention, we find that effort restrictiveness in both cultures decreases repurchase intention, while the perceived customer-oriented institutional environment increases repurchase intention. We also find self-interest and legitimacy as the mechanisms responsible for the effect of perceived institutional environment, an important context variable in international marketing that has been neglected in the product return context. These findings enhance our understanding of product returns in different cultural environments and offer valuable insights for an adequate service strategy in product return management by global e-tailers.
Heller, J., M. Chylinski, K. de Ruyter, D. I. Keeling, T. Hilken and D. Mahr (2021): Tangible Service Automation: Decomposing the Technology-Enabled Engagement Process (TEEP) for Augmented Reality, Journal of Service Research, 24(1), pp.84-103
The rise of augmented reality (AR) technology, which overlays digital content to alter customers’ views of a physical service setting, using mobile and wearable computing, drives the digital automation of physical services. In particular, it promises to achieve tangibility even in service encounters delivered in digital formats. However, customer engagement with AR is falling short of expectations. Managers lack an integrated framework of AR service automation and therefore tend to focus on the technology rather than on the process of customer engagement with AR service automation. To address this problem, the current study proposes a technology-enabled engagement process that integrates multiple stages of customer engagement, as a service-centric process. To establish that engagement with AR service automation requires the inclusion of service tangibility, as part of the process, the authors decompose the steps of interactive service engagement, the spatial presence of the service, customers’ emotional and cognitive engagement with the service, and perceived value-in-use, which lead to emergent behavioral forms of engagement.
Hollebeek, L. D., D. E. Sprott and M. K. Brady (2021): Rise of the Machines? Customer Engagement in Automated Service Interactions, Journal of Service Research, 24(1), pp.3-8
Artificial intelligence (AI) is likely to spawn revolutionary transformational effects on service organizations, including by impacting the ways in which firms engage with their customers. In parallel, customer engagement (CE), which reflects customer interactions with brands, offerings, or firms, has risen to the top of many managers’ strategic wish lists in the last decade. However, despite literature-based advances made in both areas, AI and CE are largely investigated in isolation to date, yielding a paucity of insight into their interface. In response to this gap, this Special Issue offers a pioneering exploration of CE in automated or AI-based service interactions. Our editorial first reviews AI’s Industry 4.0 underpinnings, followed by an important AI typology that comprises robotic process automation (RPA), machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL) applications. We then offer a high-level synopsis of existing CE research, followed by the development of a set of integrative propositions of CE in automated service interactions. Next, we introduce the Special Issue papers, which feature particular RPA, ML, or DL applications. We conclude with an overview of further research avenues in this growing area, which has the potential to develop into a powerful service research substream in the coming years.
Huang, M.-H. and R. T. Rust (2021): Engaged to a Robot? The Role of AI in Service, Journal of Service Research, 24(1), pp.30-41
This article develops a strategic framework for using artificial intelligence (AI) to engage customers for different service benefits. This framework lays out guidelines of how to use different AIs to engage customers based on considerations of nature of service task, service offering, service strategy, and service process. AI develops from mechanical, to thinking, and to feeling. As AI advances to a higher intelligence level, more human service employees and human intelligence (HI) at the intelligence levels lower than that level should be used less. Thus, at the current level of AI development, mechanical service should be performed mostly by mechanical AI, thinking service by both thinking AI and HI, and feeling service mostly by HI. Mechanical AI should be used for standardization when service is routine and transactional, for cost leadership, and mostly at the service delivery stage. Thinking AI should be used for personalization when service is data-rich and utilitarian, for quality leadership, and mostly at the service creation stage. Feeling AI should be used for relationalization when service is relational and high touch, for relationship leadership, and mostly at the service interaction stage. We illustrate various AI applications for the three major AI benefits, providing managerial guidelines for service providers to leverage the advantages of AI as well as future research implications for service researchers to investigate AI in service from modeling, consumer, and policy perspectives.
Lin, Y.-T., H.-S. Doong and A. B. Eisingerich (2021): Avatar Design of Virtual Salespeople: Mitigation of Recommendation Conflicts, Journal of Service Research, 24(1), pp.141-159
The role of virtual salesperson (VS) and the importance of customer reviews in facilitating online purchase decisions and sales have recently received much attention from technology companies, marketing practice professionals, and academics. However, customers’ willingness to follow the purchase advice of the VS when there is a conflict between these recommendations and those of other online customers is less understood. This research theorizes and investigates the extent to which customers’ relationship satisfaction with, and trust in, the VS helps explain customer willingness to follow VS advice in the context of recommendation conflict. Using four studies, our research explores how and when the VS’s avatar design mitigates the negative influence of conflict. An important theoretical and managerial implication of this research is that VS avatar designs that are high in automated social presence (ASP) help reduce the negative impact of conflict. However, we find that ASP mitigates the negative effects of conflict only for avatars that score low (vs. high) on cuteness.
McLeay, F., V. S. Osburg, V. Yoganathan and A. Patterson (2021): Replaced by a Robot: Service Implications in the Age of the Machine, Journal of Service Research, 24(1), pp.104-121
Service organizations, emboldened by the imperative to innovate, are increasingly introducing robots to frontline service encounters. However, as they augment or substitute human employees with robots, they may struggle to convince a distrusting public of their brand’s ethical credentials. Consequently, this article develops and tests a holistic framework to ascertain a deeper understanding of customer perceptions of frontline service robots (FLSRs) than has previously been attempted. Our experimental studies investigate the effects of the (1) role (augmentation or substitution of human employees or no involvement) and (2) type (humanoid FLSR vs. self-service machine) of FLSRs under the following service contexts: (a) value creation model (asset-builder, service provider) and (b) service type (experience, credence). By empirically establishing our framework, we highlight how customers’ personal characteristics (openness-to-change and preference for ethical/responsible service provider) and cognitive evaluations (perceived innovativeness, perceived ethical/societal reputation, and perceived innovativeness-responsibility fit) influence the impact that FLSRs have on service experience and brand usage intent. Our findings operationalize and empirically support seminal frameworks from extant literature, as well as elaborate on the positive and negative implications of using robots to complement or replace service employees. Further, we consider managerial and policy implications for service in the age of machines.
Sampson, S. E. (2021): A Strategic Framework for Task Automation in Professional Services, Journal of Service Research, 24(1), pp.122-140
Professional service jobs exist at the high end of the skill ladder; thus, some have assumed that highly trained professional workers are relatively immune to being replaced by automation. However, this assumption is a bit dubious because automation does not occur at the job level but rather at the task level, and some tasks within a professional job might be highly susceptible to automation disruption. This research builds on prior research by (1) empirically testing a model for automation of professional services and (2) developing a professional task-automation framework that shows how individual tasks within a given job can be enhanced or disrupted by automation in very different ways. Some tasks are augmented by automation and remain in the purview of professionally trained workers. Other tasks are deskilled by automation, allowing the tasks to be transferred to lower cost workers (who are aided by automation). Other tasks are moved directly to customers through self-service technologies, reducing or eliminating the need to interact with professionals or other workers. Finally, some professional tasks are centralized, which leverages professional workers’ distinctive expertise. Our framework shows precipitating conditions for each task-automation strategy and outlines logic for reconfiguring tasks within professional service systems.
Singh, J., S. Nambisan, R. G. Bridge and J. K.-U. Brock (2021): One-Voice Strategy for Customer Engagement, Journal of Service Research, 24(1), pp.42-65
Machine-age technologies, including automation, robotics, and artificial intelligence, are profoundly expanding the variety of service interfaces and therefore the possible ways that customers and firms can interact across customer journeys. This expansion challenges service firms’ capabilities to deliver coherent streams of interactions for effective customer engagement. This article develops a conceptual framework of firm capabilities that enable firms to operate with “one voice” to deliver seamless, harmonious, and reliable interactions across diverse interfaces in a customer journey. The proposed framework integrates three themes: (1) service interaction space to capture the interrelationship among devices, interfaces, interactions, and journeys; (2) learning and coordination as core capabilities for generating and using intelligence, respectively, to enhance customer engagement in subsequent interactions; and (3) one-voice strategy to configure learning and coordination capabilities in combinations that meet conditions of fitness and equifinality for effective customer engagement. We provide several research questions and priorities to guide research and practice.
Subramony, M. and M. Groth (2021): Enacting Service Work in a Changing World: Time for a Dialogue, Journal of Service Research, (), pp.1
Service work is rapidly evolving as a result of technological innovations, changing employment norms, and a variety of environmental challenges. Yet, the scope of service work scholarship appears to be restricted to traditional frontline employees occupying boundary-spanning positions in formal private-sector service organizations. Given the “perfect storm” of multiple disruptions, we believe that the time is ripe for service scholars to reexamine how service work is being (and will be) enacted in a changing world. In this editorial, we propose an expansion of the “service worker” construct, recommend a deeper exploration of the experiences of service workers, and call to situate these experiences within an evolving service work ecosystem. Our aim is to spark interdisciplinary dialogue related to service work in order to foster service scholarship and practice that are responsive to the changing world.
Warren, N., S. Hanson and H. Yuan (2021): Feeling Manipulated: How Tip Request Sequence Impacts Customers and Service Providers?, Journal of Service Research, 24(1), pp.66-83
Technology is changing frontline service scripts. Businesses are now using mobile point-of-sale applications (e.g., Square) and mobile technology (e.g., iPad) to prompt customers for tips. Tip requests are occurring more frequently at the start of service transactions, before any service has been provided. This research examines how requesting a tip either before or after service completion affects customers and service providers. We test the effects of preservice versus postservice tip sequence in four studies (a natural experiment in the field and three controlled experiments) across food and beauty service contexts. Findings reveal that requesting a tip before (vs. after) completing a service leads to smaller tips, reduced return intentions, diminished word-of-mouth intentions, and lower online ratings. Inferred manipulative intent is revealed as the psychological mechanism underlying the harmful effects of requesting a tip before service. Findings suggest that emphasizing the benefits of automated point-of-sale systems can reduce, but not eliminate, the negative effects of preservice tip requests. Contrary to norms within the service industry, we find that service providers should avoid requesting tips before serving customers.
Xiao, L. and V. Kumar (2021): Robotics for Customer Service: A Useful Complement or an Ultimate Substitute?, Journal of Service Research, 24(1), pp.9-29
We propose a conceptual framework that includes the antecedents and consequences of firms’ adopting and integrating robotics into their customer service operations. Drawing insights from literature on customer service, technology marketing, and computer science, our proposed framework elaborates on the concept of the degree of robotics adoption (DRA) as well as the antecedents (employee acceptance of robots and customer acceptance of robots) and multiple sequential consequences (service quality, customer long-term performance, and customer engagement) of DRA. We also discuss how the nature of the firm (Business to Consumer versus Business-to-Business, i.e., B2C vs. B2B), service characteristics (utilitarian vs. hedonic), and brand positioning (low equity vs. high equity) might moderate the relationship between DRA and service quality. Further, we provide actionable guidance for managers to adopt and integrate robotics into their customer service operations.
Brodie, R. J., J. Previte, K. R. Ranjan, Y. Jiang and M.-l. Verreynne (2021): Coronavirus crisis and health care: learning from a service ecosystem perspective, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(2), pp.225-246
Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has created a crisis for healthcare systems worldwide. There have been significant challenges to managing public and private health care and related services systems’ capacity to cope with testing, treatment and containment of the virus. Drawing on the foundational research by Frow et al. (2019), the paper explores how adopting a service ecosystem perspective provides insight into the complexity of healthcare systems during times of extreme stress and uncertainty. Design/methodology/approach A healthcare framework based on a review of the service ecosystem literature is developed, and the COVID-19 crisis in Australia provides an illustrative case. Findings The study demonstrates how the service ecosystem perspective provides new insight into the dynamics and multilayered nature of a healthcare system during a pandemic. Three propositions are developed that offer directions for future research and managerial applications. Practical implications The research provides an understanding of the relevance of managerial flexibility, innovation, learning and knowledge sharing, which offers opportunities leading to greater resilience in the healthcare system. In particular, the research addresses how service providers in the service ecosystem learn from this pandemic to inform future practices. Originality/value The service ecosystem perspective for health care offers fresh thinking and an understanding of how a shared worldview, institutional practices and supportive and disruptive factors influence the systems’ overall well-being during a crisis such as COVID-19.
Kabadayi, S., S. Boenigk, J. Finsterwalder and R. P. Fisk (2020): Creating hospitable service systems for refugees during a pandemic: leveraging resources for service inclusion, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(2), pp.247-263
Purpose The overarching goal of this paper is to increase awareness among researchers and practitioners that refugees are disproportionally impacted by COVID-19, which increases their suffering. Second, it extends a recently introduced transformative refugee service experience framework by integrating and conceptualizing refugees’ resource and service inclusion during a pandemic. Third, it explores lessons learned and implications from the COVID-19 pandemic for the future of service research and practice. Design/methodology/approach This study synthesizes approaches on refugees, resources and transformative service research to develop an extended framework for addressing one of society’s pressing issues during and after pandemics. Findings Recognizing refugees as providing resources rather than just needing or depleting resources can enable more inclusion. It facilitates refugees’ integration into society by drawing on their skills and knowledge. This requires hospitable refugee service systems that enable service inclusion and opportunities for refugee resource integration. Research limitations/implications This article focuses on one vulnerable group in society. However, the extended framework presented warrants broader application to other contexts, such as subsistence marketplaces. Practical implications Managers of service businesses and public policymakers should create more inclusive and hospitable service systems for refugees. This may result in redesigning services, changing consumer behavior and reformulating public policy. Social implications Better inclusion and integration of refugees and their resources should increase their individual well-being, reduce social issues in society, increase overall societal well-being and productivity. Originality/value This article presents a novel extended framework for service scholars and service providers to increase resource and service inclusion of refugees in a disaster context.
Portioli Staudacher, A., G. Tortorella, A. F. Mac Cawley, M. Godinho Filho and G. Narayanamurthy (2020): Pandemic’s effect on the relationship between lean implementation and service performance, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(2), pp.203-224
Purpose This paper aims at examining the impact that COVID-19 pandemic and its related work implications have on the relationship between lean implementation and service performance. Design/methodology/approach The author surveyed service organizations that have been implementing lean for at least two years and remotely maintained their activities during the COVID-19 outbreak. Multivariate data techniques were applied to analyze the dataset. This study was grounded on sociotechnical systems theory. Findings The findings indicate that organizations that have been implementing lean services more extensively are also more likely to benefit from the effects that the COVID-19 had on work environments, especially in the case of home office. Nevertheless, social distancing does not appear to mediate the effects of lean services on both quality and delivery performances. Originality/value Since the pandemic is a recent phenomenon with unprecedented effects, this research is an initial effort to determine the effect the pandemic has on lean implementation and services’ performance, providing both theoretical and practical contributions to the field.
Russo-Spena, T., C. Mele and V. Kaartemo (2020): The impact of coronavirus on business: developing service research agenda for a post-coronavirus world, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(2), pp.184-202
Purpose The coronavirus (COVID-19) has had a tremendous impact on companies worldwide. However, researchers have no clear idea of the key issues requiring their attention. This paper aims to close this gap by analysing all business-related posts on a coronavirus subreddit (“r/coronavirus”) and identifying the main research streams that are guiding the research agenda for a post-coronavirus world. Design/methodology/approach We use data from reddit, particularly the subreddit “r/coronavirus” to identify posts that reveal the impact of coronavirus on business. Our dataset has more than 200,000 posts. We used an artificial intelligence–based algorithm to scrape the data with business-related search terms, clean it and analyse the discussion topics. Findings We show the key topics that address the impact of coronavirus on business, combining them into four themes: essential service provision, bricolage service innovation, responsible shopping practices and market shaping amid crisis. We discuss these themes and use them to develop a service research agenda. The results are reported against the backdrop of service research priorities. Originality/value The study identifies four key themes that have emerged from the impact of coronavirus on business and that require scholarly attention. Our findings can guide service research with unique insights provided immediately after the coronavirus outbreak to conduct research that matters to business and helps people in vulnerable positions in a post-coronavirus world.
Huang, A. and M. Farboudi Jahromi (2021): Resilience building in service firms during and post COVID-19, Service Industries Journal, 41(44198), pp.138-167
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected millions of service firms worldwide; therefore, they must be resilient during these uncertain economic times. This paper develops a new conceptual framework of resilience-building strategies for the service industry. This framework encompasses five major practical strategies and several sub-strategies that can help service firms to survive and thrive amid and post COVID-19 pandemic. The proposed strategies include market orientation, supply chain optimization, strategic corporate reorganization, innovation, and business model transformation. The successful implementation of each strategy depends on various factors, which are discussed in the study. In addition, four major resources, including financial, human, social, and technological capital, are reviewed as prerequisites for adopting the resilience-building strategies. This new framework contributes to the organizational resilience literature and provides practical implications for service firms to become resilient during and post COVID-19. (English)
Finsterwalder, J. (2021): Social distancing and wellbeing: conceptualizing actor distance and actor safe zone for pandemics, Service Industries Journal, 41(44198), pp.9-31
This article conceptualizes social distancing in the wake of disasters, such as pandemics, which affect the way actors perceive themselves in relation to the world around them. It advances that social distancing goes beyond the mere notion of being physically distant by drawing on work in psychology. This article introduces the term actor distance and applies the four domains of temporal, hypothetical, physical and social distance to the construct. Moreover, this work embeds actor distance in earlier work on actor wellbeing and the notion of a resources–challenges equilibrium (RCE) concept of wellbeing. Expanding on the framework of RCE, this article coins the term of actor safe zone and infuses it into Transformative Service Research. It discusses the connection of actor distance, RCE and actor safe zone in the light of major incidents and derives implications for service research and practice.
Hofmann, V., N. E. Stokburger-Sauer, A. Wanisch and H. Hebborn (2021): Masked smiles matter – employee verbal expertise and emotion display during COVID-19, Service Industries Journal, (), pp.1-31
Throughout the customer journey, the employee-customer interaction drives customer responses. The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically influenced shopping behavior with face masks playing a major role. This research investigates how consumer behavior has changed and how frontline employee (FLE) non-verbal (emotional facial expressions) and verbal cues (verbal expertise) influence customer responses dependent on whether FLEs wear a face mask or not. Semi-structured interviews among consumers, an open association study among students and an experimental study using Panel data were conducted. Findings of these online studies with German-speaking consumers show that face masks do not exclusively cause negative feelings and problems; they also reduce the perceived risk of a COVID-19 infection. Importantly, customers can correctly decode FLE smiling even when wearing face masks; however, the relevance of verbal expertise increases compared to FLE emotion displays. This state-of-the-art research during COVID-19 provides novel insights into dyadic service interactions for research and management.
Kwan, H. K., M. Li, X. Wu and X. Xu (2021): The need to belong: how to reduce workplace ostracism, Service Industries Journal, (), pp.1-22
Although the need to belong, or the desire for interpersonal attachments, is a basic human motivation, understanding of how and when it influences workplace ostracism is notably limited. Based on belongingness theory, this study examines the negative relationship between the need to belong and exposure to workplace ostracism by focusing on the mediating role of organizational deviance and the moderating role of in-role performance. Data from 108 supervisor–subordinate dyads in China were collected at three time points. The results reveal that organizational deviance mediates the relationship between the need to belong and workplace ostracism. Additionally, in-role performance alleviates the negative relationship between the need to belong and organizational deviance. The implications for management theory and practice are discussed. (English)
The Khoa, D., C.-Y. Wang and P. Guchait (2021): Using regulatory focus to encourage physical distancing in services: when fear helps to deal with Mr. Deadly COVID-19, Service Industries Journal, 41(44198), pp.32-57
Although physical distancing is the key to reducing the risk of virus infection, the commonly used signs to spur physical distancing in services seem ineffective as many customers still refrain from practicing physical distancing. This research therefore suggests using regulatory focus (prevention vs. promotion) to improve the persuasiveness of these appeals. Study 1 creates and validates one multiple-item scale for measuring physical distancing in services, which is then adopted in two subsequent scenario-based experiments. Study 2 proves the superior effect of prevention-focused message to both promotion-focused message and conventional message in encouraging physical distancing compliance, which is explained by perceived fear as the underlying psychological mechanism. Study 3 further unveils the boundary condition of anthropomorphism in strengthening this superiority (i.e. Mr. Deadly COVID-19, scary face). Given a great deal of uncertain future caused by this epidemic, this research provides relevant implications for fostering the engagement in physical distancing in services.
Yang, K., J. Kim, J. Min and A. Hernandez-Calderon (2021): Effects of retailers’ service quality and legitimacy on behavioral intention: the role of emotions during COVID-19, Service Industries Journal, 41(44198), pp.84-106
By applying institutional theory to the current retail environment under the COVID-19 pandemic, the purpose of this study is to 1) identify service quality dimensions that generate pragmatic and social legitimacy, 2) investigate the effects of pragmatic and social legitimacy on revisit intention and health-focused behavior, and 3) examine the moderating role of emotions (i.e. hope and fear) in the relationships among service quality dimensions, legitimacy, and consumer behavioral intentions. Using data (n=473) collected during June 2020, this study finds that hygiene practice, reliability, safety assurance, and empathy are determinants of pragmatic and social legitimacy, which encourages consumers’ intention to revisit the retailer and foster health-focused behavior. The moderating role of emotions (i.e. hope and fear) is also examined in the causal relationships among service quality, legitimacy, and behavioral intentions. Implications for how retailers can serve their customers as their emotions related to the pandemic intensify are discussed.
Chocarro, R., M. Cortinas and M. L. Villanueva (2021): Different channels for different services: information sources for services with search, experience and credence attributes, Service Industries Journal, 41(44259), pp.261-284
A first step in many decision-making processes is a search for information. This paper focuses on the means consumers use to access information prior to contracting services. It uses two different theoretical perspectives, namely, the economic approach and the psychological approach), and the specific aim is to compare consumers’ choice of source when seeking information prior to contracting services with different levels of search, experience or credence attributes. The modelling technique is mixed regression models, which allow the use of standard errors robust to within-group correlation. Our review of the data from a sample of 492 consumers and nine different services (three for each attribute category) shows that consumers use fewer information sources and show less search intensity when the purchase involves a service with search attributes than when it involves either of the other types. The highest levels of information search intensity and online media usage are found in relation to services with experience attributes. Fewer sources are consulted for purchases involving services with credence qualities than for those involving the other types, but the information obtained has a greater impact on decision making. The information sources most commonly-used are personal contacts and offline media. (English)
Losada-Otálora, M. and L. Alkire (2021): A transformative approach to corporate social responsibility: an antidote to corporate hypocrisy, Service Industries Journal, 41(44259), pp.200-222
Despite the substantial budgets spent on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), customers’ reactions toward companies’ socially responsible strategies are not always in line with companies’ goals. This is mainly due to the rising CSR-related-hypocrisy occurring as a customer response to a common concern that companies are investing in symbolic CSR. These perceptions not only limit the sought-after outcomes of CSR but could result in a worsening of reputation and financial loss for services. As such, the key research question in this paper is: ‘From a customers’ perspective, what factors can help reduce the perception of CSR-related-hypocrisy within banking services?’. In addressing this question, this paper adopts a transdisciplinary approach bridging the gap between CSR and Transformative Service Research (TSR) literature. Findings suggest that when CSR-related-activities positively affect the wellbeing of customers, it is less likely that they judge a firm CSR activity as a hypocrite. In the retail banking sector, this paper shows higher perceived bank information transparency results in lower levels of perceived CSR-related-hypocrisy, especially when CSR activities improve the financial self-efficacy of customers. By bridging TSR and CSR lenses, this paper posits CSR activities offer service companies a unique opportunity for creating ‘uplifting changes’ in the life of customers. (English)
Lee, K., M. Madanoglu, I. S. Ha and A. Fritz (2021): The impact of service quality and customer satisfaction on consumer spending in wineries, Service Industries Journal, 41(44259), pp.248-260
The purpose of the study is to examine the key attributes of winery service quality that affect winery visitors’ satisfaction. The study also investigates the key factors that affect winery visitors’ spending at a winery. Data are obtained from a survey of winery visitors about their evaluation of various service attributes. Data were later matched with respondents’ actual spending at a winery in Sonoma, California. The results of the study demonstrate that the quality of wine tastings, winery staff hospitality, and winery tasting room experiences are positively related to winery visitors’ satisfaction. On the other hand, staff hospitality, age, gender, and frequency of winery visits are significant variables that account for winery visitors’ spending at the winery. Surprisingly, wine quality is not significantly correlated with winery visitor spending. (English)
Ali, F., S. Dogan, M. Amin, K. Hussain and K. Ryu (2021): Brand anthropomorphism, love and defense: does attitude towards social distancing matter?, Service Industries Journal, 41(44198), pp.58-83
Several hospitality brands changed their logos to reinforce the importance of social distancing in reducing the risk of virus infection. Since social distancing is a polarizing topic, this research intends to understand consumers’ attitudes towards social distancing and their response to branding change by hospitality brands. Study 1 creates and validates a multiple-item scale to examine consumers’ attitudes towards social distancing, which is then adopted for two subsequent studies. Study 2 tests consumers’ awareness and perceived brand anthropomorphism during a sensitive situation like a global pandemic and the impact of perceived brand anthropomorphism on brand love and brand defense. Study 3 tests the proposed model in study 2 across two customer segments, i.e. those in favor of social distancing and its effectiveness and those against it. Results indicate that brand anthropomorphism and brand love have a significantly positive impact on brand defense. Additionally, these relationships differ for consumers who favor or oppose social distancing. Our research contributes to the hospitality branding literature by studying relatively understudied branding constructs in an unprecedented context and offers insights for hospitality branding and marketing managers. (English)
Lengieza, M. L., J. K. Swim and C. A. Hunt (2021): Effects of post-trip eudaimonic reflections on affect, self-transcendence and philanthropy, Service Industries Journal, 41(44259), pp.285-306
Recently, tourism scholars have recognized that travel can create transformation, including (1) personal benefits such as improved wellbeing and personal growth and (2) societal benefits such as increased open-mindedness and more positive pro-environmental attitudes, motivations, and behaviors. Expanding and integrating this research, this experimental study tests whether travel experiences, with eudaimonic elements of self-discovery and a sense of meaning, lead to these benefits and tests a proposed process where these experiences influence personal changes that subsequently create societal benefits. Specifically, using an online MTurk sample (n = 481) with a broad range of recent vacation experiences, we test whether (1) post-trip self-reflection on eudaimonic travel experiences (2) creates affective responses (3) that lead to self-transcendent changes and (4) subsequent post-trip philanthropy among recent travelers. Results of structural equation modeling indicate that philanthropic effects of travel were initiated by the eudaimonic self-reflections via eudaimonic affect and self-transcendent outcomes. This study contributes to the research linking eudaimonia and travel and provides insights into the ways that the travel industry can be harnessed as a potent tool for promoting personal meaning, self-transcendence, and prosocial outcomes. (English)
Gong, T. and Y. Yi (2021): A review of customer citizenship behaviors in the service context, Service Industries Journal, 41(44259), pp.169-199
During the last two decades, studies on customer citizenship behavior in the service context have gained the attention of researchers. However, there is no comprehensive review exploring the various dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of customer citizenship behavior. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to critically review the studies of customer citizenship behavior to provide deeper insights, which help us to identify the research gaps in this area and to prepare a future research agenda, and thereby contributing toward the development of this research field. The authors find that several areas were under-explored in prior research. There is a potential for identifying additional dimensions of customer citizenship behavior as well as the antecedents and consequences of customer citizenship behavior. The authors also assess methodological issues with regard to this research field and set a future research agenda. (English)
Rosenbaum, M. S., K. Kim, G. C. Ramirez, A. R. Orejuela and J. Park (2021): Improving well-being via adaptive reuse: transformative repurposed service organizations, Service Industries Journal, 41(44259), pp.223-247
This research illustrates the social supportive role that adaptive resuse of service organizations may play in promoting individual well-being. This work showcases how a health care clinic located in a developing country transforms into a setting which hosts community members’ socially supportive relationships during the clinic’s off-hours. The empirical results reveal that participating in an array of social activities offered in the clinic grants clinic patrons, most of whom are financially vulnerable, access to social supportive resources. The results show that social support is positively related to patrons’ sense of belonging, well-being, and quality of life. The authors encourage public health and governmental agencies, especially in low-income areas where people often lack sufficient social support and in locales where governmental agencies confront monetary limitations, to consider the adaptive resuse of structures (i.e. clinics, education facilities, and office buildings) into spaces that encourages community members to gather and to socialize. (English)
Ali, F., O. Ciftci, L. Nanu, C. Cobanoglu and K. Ryu (2021): Response Rates In Hospitality Research: An Overview of Current Practice and Suggestions For Future Research, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(1), pp.105-120
In this paper, we examine published research in six top-tier hospitality journals to explore response rates for different survey distribution methods across specific characteristics like research context, respondents, and geographical regions. Data were analyzed from 1,389 papers published from January 2001 to December 2019. By looking at a large set of published response rates, distribution and enhancing methods and type of respondents, findings from this study will aid researchers in designing more effective surveys and successfully collecting necessary data. The implications for response rate in hospitality research are also presented.
Bogicevic, V. and M. Bujisic (2021): Comparison of Composites, Dichotomous, and Latent Factor Measurement Operationalizations in Hospitality Research on Moderating Effects, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(1), pp.121-138
Moderation testing through latent factor models is relatively underutilized in hospitality and tourism research. The purpose of this research is to highlight the differences in the treatment of measurements of reflective constructs as composite indices versus latent factors in moderating effect tests in hospitality research. For this research, we build our primer on the investigation of the differences in customer satisfaction with the perceived entertainment experience at a hospitality/tourism attraction, contingent on customers’ personality trait extraversion, borrowed from the Big-Five mini marker inventory. Our findings illustrate the consequences of the measurement conceptualization and the representation of constructs in statistical models with interaction effects. While using composites simplifies the estimation of the regression paths and provides a reasonable sense of the direction of the effect and its statistical significance, it is not always aligned with the theoretical and conceptual underpinning of the employed constructs. A statistical model with composites may underestimate an interaction effect, whereas a model with a dichotomized moderator may overestimate the interaction effect. The findings of this research draw the attention of the hospitality and tourism research community on different representations of reflective constructs in their measurement and statistical models.
Çakar, K. and Ş. Aykol (2021): Case Study as a Research Method in Hospitality and Tourism Research: A Systematic Literature Review (1974–2020), Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(1), pp.21-31
This systematic literature review aimed to investigate the use of case study method in hospitality and tourism research to increase the awareness about the use of case study as a research method. Data were collected (n = 871) from 10 leading hospitality and tourism journals published between 1974 and 2020. A thematic analysis of the data was conducted using Leximancer as a computer-aided analysis software. The study findings reveal an overall mislabel and misuse of the case study method. Suggestions are provided to improve case study method applications and increase case study research for more theory development in hospitality and tourism research.
Capitello, R., K. L. Sidali and G. Schamel (2021): Wine Terroir Commitment in the Development of a Wine Destination, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
New conceptualizations propose the concept of terroir as referring to a place of distinctiveness that is able to create marketing value. However, the knowledge regarding the role of terroir in tourism marketing is still scarce. Specifically, the concept of resident commitment has received little attention in research on tourism marketing, and therefore there is a gap in knowledge on the components of resident commitment and the role it can play in the construction or renewal of a tourist destination. To fill this gap, the purpose of this study is to analyze the role of residents’ commitment in consideration of terroir as referring to both a winegrowing region and a place of residence. The study aims to determine how residents’ commitment interacts with the brand dimensions identified in the marketing literature and consumer behavior research. In our theoretical framework we presented the wine terroir commitment (WTC) as a multidimensional grassroots construct and we empirically verified it by conducting a survey in a wine region, the Eisacktal Valley in South Tyrol (Italy). The findings show that Terroir Identification and Terroir Loyalty are two important antecedents of WTC as they mediate the exogenous latent variables of Terroir Prestige, and Wine Involvement as well as Resident Commitment and Terroir Experience, respectively. In the conclusions, we derive some recommendations for scholars and practitioners.
Doan, T., P. B. Kim, S. Mooney and H.-Y. T. Vo (2021): The Emancipatory Approach in Hospitality Research on Employees With Disabilities: An Auto-Ethnographic Research Note, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(1), pp.46-61
The emancipatory approach in disability research takes the political position of promoting the voices of people with disabilities to make possible transformative changes to their lives. Based on auto-ethnographic research notes made while applying the emancipatory approach to qualitative research conducted with employees with disabilities in the Vietnamese hospitality industry, this article suggests guidelines that include four steps: preparing/planning, recruiting, conducting interviews, and confirming the data. Practical strategies for each stage in the process are also suggested, with the aim of better including the voices of employees with disabilities in qualitative hospitality research. The article will benefit future researchers conducting qualitative research on employees with disabilities by highlighting the value of the emancipatory approach, which has not been previously reported on in the hospitality literature.
Han, S. and C. K. Anderson (2021): Web Scraping for Hospitality Research: Overview, Opportunities, and Implications, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(1), pp.89-104
As consumers increasingly research and purchase hospitality and travel services online, new research opportunities have become available to hospitality academics. There is a growing interest in understanding the online travel marketplace among hospitality researchers. Although many researchers have attempted to better understand the online travel market through the use of analytical models, experiments, or survey collection, these studies often fail to capture the full complexity of the market. Academics often rely upon survey data or experiments owing to their ease of collection or potentially to the difficulty in assembling online data. In this study, we hope to equip hospitality researchers with the tools and methods to augment their traditional data sources with the readily available data that consumers use to make their travel choices. In this article, we provide a guideline (and Python code) for how to best collect/scrape publicly available online hotel data. We focus on the collection of online data across numerous platforms, including online travel agents, review sites, and hotel brand sites. We outline some exciting possibilities regarding how these data sources might be utilized, as well as discuss some of the caveats that have to be considered when analyzing online data.
Hanks, L., N. D. Line and L. Zhang (2021): Expanding the Methodological Approach to the Social Servicescape: Moving From Measurement to Manipulation, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(1), pp.157-168
Recently, research of the servicescape has expanded to include a social element in addition to the traditionally identified physical/tangible element. Typically, this social servicescape construct has been treated as a measured variable, reflecting the other customers in the service environment across three dimensions (i.e., similarity, behavior, and appearance). However, the exclusive use of measurement to operationalize a phenomenon limits both the types of methods that can be used and, correspondingly, the types of research questions that can be asked. Accordingly, the purpose of this research is to propose and test a scenario-based manipulation of the customer social servicescape construct so that future research can address the phenomenon using experimental design. Scenarios crossing the social servicescape with social density (i.e., crowding) are constructed in three different domains (restaurant, hotel, and retail) and tested in terms of their nomological validity by assessing the effects of the manipulated variables on attitudes and satisfaction. Our results demonstrate that the three elements of the social servicescape—similarity, appearance, and behavior—each had a direct and significant effect on attitude and satisfaction. In addition, these results were consistent across the hotel, restaurant, and retail contexts. The clarity and consistency of these findings indicate the viability of the social servicescape manipulations as a research tool.
Kim, M. G., H. Yang and A. S. Mattila (2021): Effects of Visual Cues and Social Density on Beverage Consumption: A Field Experiment in a Bar, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
We conducted a randomized controlled field study to explore the effectiveness of sensory marketing on beverage consumption patterns in a real bar setting. Specifically, we examined (a) the effect of visual elements (i.e., consumption-inducing text messages on coasters), (b) the effect of social density, and (c) the joint effect of visual elements and social density. We manipulated coaster type (visual consumption-inducing messages either present or absent), measured social density, and collected sales data. The results show that visual elements have a significant effect on beverage consumption, but social density does not. The joint effect between the two factors is significant such that the effect of visual elements is higher when social density is low. This study contributes to the sensory marketing literature by revealing the interaction between visual and spatial cues in a field setting.
LaTour, K. A. and A. Brant (2021): Social Listening to Create Bespoke Customer Experiences: Best Practices for Hospitality Operators, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
Most hospitality operators use social media in their communications as a means to communicate brand image and provide information to customers. Our focus is on a two-way exchange whereby a customer’s social posting is reacted to in real-time by the provider to enhance the customer’s current experience. Using social media in this way is new, and the provider needs to carefully balance privacy and personalization. We describe the process by which the Dorchester Collection Customer Experience (CX) Team approached its social listening program and share lessons to identify best practices for hospitality operators wanting to delight their customers through insights gained from social listening.
Lee, L., R. F. Guzzo, J. M. Madera and P. Guchait (2021): Examining Applicant Online Recruitment: The Use of Fictitious Websites in Experimental Studies, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(1), pp.76-88
Advancements in technology enable hospitality organizations to rely on digital recruitment efforts such as websites to attract applicants. Reflecting this industry trend, a small, but growing body of literature from the hospitality industry examines how applicants react to online recruiting using fictitious websites of hypothetical companies in experiments. The purpose of this article is to validate the use of fictitious websites as an experimental data collection method. Two quasi-experiments were guided by theories and model of applicant perceptions of fit and organizational attraction. Fit was manipulated by matching the career preference of active job seekers (e.g., a job seeker in the hotel sector) with a fictitious website (e.g., a hotel’s careers page) or not (control group). The results from the two quasi-experiments showed person–organization fit (Study 1) and person–job fit (Study 2) led to more organizational attraction under conditions of matches (e.g., a job seeker in the hotel sector evaluating a hotel’s careers page) than in the control groups. The findings of the two studies not only support the use of fictitious websites as a viable data collection method but also open a new line of research for hospitality research and human resources. Future hospitality scholars can use this technique to manipulate organization’s human resource practices (e.g., recruitment, selection, training, performance evaluation, compensation, and benefits) and examine attitudes of individuals (e.g., applicants, employees, and managers). The current data collection method also allows for researchers to not only manipulate information but also maximize the realism of the experimental stimuli.
Line, N., M. Cho and J. Hair (2021): The Implications of Research Methodologies for Hospitality Practitioners in an Age of Consumer and Data Complexity, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(1), pp.4-7
The purpose of this special issue is to highlight the importance of methods in hospitality research, with a specific emphasis on how methodological advancements can affect both theoretical progress and practical management in the field of hospitality. Special Issue Articles Each of the articles in this special issue makes a contribution to the methodological advancement of hospitality research. Importantly, these guidelines are useful not only to academic researchers but also to practitioners who may want to maximize response rates when collecting data from their customers and/or employees. Accordingly, practitioners should seek to hold researchers accountable for providing detailed methodological accounts of their work as well as for developing and implementing industry-specific methodologies to match the industry-specific problems faced by hospitality managers. [Extracted from the article]Copyright of Cornell Hospitality Quarterly is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Liu, A. and H. Song (2021): Analysis and Forecasts of the Demand for Imported Wine in China, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
The aim of this study is to investigate the long-term determinants of China’s imported wine demand and to forecast wine imports from 2019 to 2023 using econometric methods. Auto-regressive distributed lag models are developed based on neoclassical economic demand theory to investigate the long-term determinants of China’s demand for imported bottled, bulk, and sparkling wine from the top five countries of origin. The empirical results demonstrate that income is the most important determinant of China’s imported wine demand, and that price only plays a significant role in a few markets. Substitute and complement effects are identified between wines from different countries of origin and between imported wines and other liquids. China’s imported wine demand is expected to maintain its rapid growth over the forecast period. Bottled wine will continue to dominate China’s imported wine market. France will have the largest market share in the bottled wine market, Spain will be the largest provider of bulk wine, and Italy will hold the same position for sparkling wine. This is the first study to use a single equation with the general to specific method rather than a system of equations to estimate and forecast China’s demand for imported bottled, bulk, and sparkling wines from different countries of origin. The more specific model setting for each country of origin improves forecasting accuracy.
Lorey, T. (2021): The Success of Rosé Wine in France: The Millennial Revolution, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
Rosé wine consumption in France has tripled since 1992 and, in 2020, accounts for a third of the total national consumption. The objective of our article is to analyze the revolutionary success of rosé wine in France in the Millennial Generation. We mobilize the concept of social representation, which constitutes an understanding of the social transformations in progress for a given social group. We carry out in-depth qualitative research based on conversations with millennial rosé wine consumers. Our results show that the representations of rosé wine for this group are based on five dimensions: (a) product quality and refusal of sophistication, (b) color of the rosé wine, (c) freedom, (d) immediate pleasure and sharing with friends, and (e) its feminine personality. This transgressive capital explains the consumption behaviors of the Millennial Generation reflecting the group’s will to break traditional wine codes familiar to previous generational groups. This sociocultural model differs from that of the Baby Boomer Generation, which was marked by the valorization of terroir and sophistication and based on masculine archetypes and red wine. Rosé wine thus marks a generational and sociological break in the representations of wine in France, which we can describe as a rosé wine revolution in the 21st century. The predictive capacity of the Millennial Generation suggests a growth in rosé wine consumption in the years to come. We recommend to rosé wine producers seven strategic axes, which reconcile the point of view of the producer and the consumer.
Manosuthi, N., J.-S. Lee and H. Han (2021): An Innovative Application of Composite-Based Structural Equation Modeling in Hospitality Research With Empirical Example, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(1), pp.139-156
Partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM) and generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) are two key estimators derived from a full-fledged composite-based structural equation modeling (SEM). The analyses of PLS-PM and GSCA have been recently extended to mimic factor-based SEM, and the extended approaches are called PLSC and GSCAM, respectively. Simulation studies have confirmed that the relative performance of PLS-PM is comparable with that of GSCA. Similarly, GSCAM, PLSC, and the traditional factor-based SEM perform equally well in parameter recovery. Although composite-based SEM perfectly fits into the current research landscape that focuses on a prediction-oriented approach, empirical research in the hospitality context that uses PLS-PM, GSCA, PLSC, and GSCAM estimators is extremely rare. To encourage hospitality researchers to adopt these methodologies, we demonstrate an illustrative example using PLS-PM, GSCA, PLSC, and GSCAM based on the confirmatory composite analysis (CCA) procedure. Measurement and structural invariances, applications of model fit, PLSpredict, and importance-performance map analysis are incorporated into our example. Finally, practical management in the hospitality field based on this methodology is discussed.
McGinley, S., W. Wei, L. Zhang and Y. Zheng (2021): The State of Qualitative Research in Hospitality: A 5-Year Review 2014 to 2019, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(1), pp.8-20
In response to this special issue, concerned with methods and measurements, a comprehensive review of the last 5 years of qualitative research was conducted in the top five journals that primarily publish articles pertaining to the hospitality industry. A total of 197 articles were read and analyzed for this review with a focus on the state of trustworthiness in the contemporary hospitality literature. An outline of the methods, techniques, and successes are presented in this review as are recommendations for scholars, journal editors, journal reviewers, and our partners in industry who use qualitative data for many reasons including but not limited to employee satisfaction surveys, market focus groups, and employee exit interviews. In addition, the relatively novel and nascent ideas regarding empirical rigor such as transparency and replicability are introduced to the hospitality field.
Mun, S. G., Y. Koh and S. Jang (2021): Which Type of M&A Makes an Acquiring Restaurant Firm a Star? Profit-Driven Versus Growth-Driven M&A, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
This study identifies whether profit-driven or growth-driven mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are more beneficial to a restaurant firm aiming to achieve profitable growth after an M&A. The results indicate that despite the challenges that must be overcome to achieve profitable growth through M&As, profit-driven acquiring firms are more likely to have better post-M&A operational performance than growth-driven acquiring firms. Therefore, this study suggests that when restaurant firms seek to grow their business through M&As, they should pursue this goal after achieving higher operational profitability, along with better cost controls, supply management, and marketing strategies, rather than optimistically adhering to growth strategies before accumulating any internal, market-based competitive strengths.
Richard, B., S. A. Sivo, M. Orlowski, R. C. Ford, J. Murphy, D. N. Boote and E. L. Witta (2021): Qualitative Research via Focus Groups: Will Going Online Affect the Diversity of Your Findings?, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(1), pp.32-45
Practitioners and researchers are conducting more focus groups online as a qualitative data collection method, yet rigorous methodological studies investigating the diversity of findings versus traditional in-person focus groups are limited. Previous studies primarily focused on health topics, varied on topic scope (broad to sensitive), format (synchronous vs. asynchronous), and online platform (several no longer exist). This experimental study sought to address that gap by randomly assigning participants into treatment groups to brainstorm sustainable practices for the hospitality industry (i.e., a broad topic) on a popular publicly available platform (i.e., Reddit). Although the in-person focus groups generated a greater word count and number of ideas, they generated an equivalent number of unique ideas. In terms of idea diversity, thematic analysis revealed a relatively high degree of overlap in themes from both groups. Of 13 themes, 10 (77%) occurred in both treatment groups. The overlapping themes represented 91% of all key words generated across both groups. These results highlight the potential for online focus groups to generate idea diversity at a level that is comparable to in-person focus groups. For practitioners seeking to benefit from guest insights, the findings help to substantiate the value of a lower cost, faster-to-market data collection method.
Yu, H., L. Lee and J. M. Madera (2021): Collecting Repeated Data Over Time: Applying Experience Sampling Methodology to the Hospitality Management Context, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(1), pp.62-75
While organizational and management research has implemented the use of experience sampling methods (ESM), hospitality management research has yet to reap the benefits of this method and design. ESM involves collecting data at several time points from participants as they experience organizational phenomena, measuring the variations and oscillations in attitudes, behaviors, and performance. This article seeks to define ESM for hospitality research, highlight the strengths, outline the challenges of ESM, and offer best practices by using ESM data from three hospitality industry examples. Each example compares cross-sectional data collection methods and analyses to ESM data collection methods and analyses to compare the different results of the data collection methods.