Considered Service-specific journals were Journal of Service Research, Journal of Service Management, Journal of Services Marketing, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, Service Industries Journal, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, and Service Science.
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Ostrom, A. L., J. M. Field, D. Fotheringham, M. Subramony, A. Gustafsson, K. N. Lemon, M.-H. Huang and J. R. McColl-Kennedy (2021): Service Research Priorities: Managing and Delivering Service in Turbulent Times, Journal of Service Research, 24(3), pp.329-353
Transformative changes in the societal and service context call out for the service discipline to develop a coherent set of priorities for research and practice. To this end, we utilized multiple data sources: surveys of service scholars and practitioners, web scraping of online documents, a review of published service scholarship, and roundtable discussions conducted at the world’s foremost service research centers. We incorporated innovative methodologies, including machine learning, natural language processing, and qualitative analyses, to identify key service research priorities that are critical to address during these turbulent times. The first two priorities— technology and the changing nature of work and technology and the customer experience —focus on leveraging technology for service provision and consumption. The next two priorities— resource and capability constraints and customer proactivity for well-being —focus on responding to the changing needs of multiple stakeholders. Further, we identified a set of stakeholder-wants from the literature and include research questions that tie key stakeholder-wants to each of the four priorities. We believe the set of research priorities in the present article offer actionable ideas for service research directions in this challenging environment.
Vink, J. and K. Koskela-Huotari (2021): Building Reflexivity Using Service Design Methods, Journal of Service Research, (), pp.1
The transformative potential of service design rests on its ability to enable people to intentionally shape institutionalized social structures. To avoid simply reproducing social structures unconsciously, people need reflexivity—an awareness of existing social structures. Scholars suggest that the use of service design methods can enhance people’s reflexivity. However, the theoretical underpinning of this effect remains unclear, which in turn limits the realization of service design’s transformative potential in practice. In response, using an abductive approach that combines theoretical and empirical inputs, we develop an integrative framework that explains the mechanisms by which service design methods can increase people’s reflexivity. The current study contributes to the evolving service design discourse with an alternative categorization of service design methods, based on their affordances for different modes of reflexivity. The framework also reveals the underlying processes by which the use of service design methods can support people’s work with institutionalized social structures as design materials to enable transformation. This research supports a more thoughtful use and strategic development of service design methods to support transformative aims.
C. Crawford, A., C. E. Newmeyer, J. H. Jung and T. J. Arnold (2021): Frontline Employee Passion: A Multistudy Conceptualization and Scale Development, Journal of Service Research, (), pp.1
Passion is a motivational force driving people toward success and satisfaction. Outside of entrepreneurship, though, research on how passion may be activated within a work role has been limited. As frontline employees (FLEs) are a vital link between organizations and their customers, measuring passion in the FLE context is particularly relevant. Anyone who has enjoyed memorable service knows, it is through passionate FLEs that service organizations may stand out from competitors. Through a series of seven studies conducted across multiple countries, this research develops and validates a measure of FLE passion. FLE passion is the intense positive feelings and identity reinforcement resulting from solving problems and/or serving customers. The developed and validated measurement instrument is comprised of both serving and solving dimensions and includes evidence that FLEs negotiate their identities and activate positive affect during service encounters. Theory and results indicate that organizations may control certain antecedents to passion, and that passion is related, yet distinct, from such things as employee engagement and organizational commitment. A potential research agenda is presented based upon applying the FLE passion construct across various service domains.
Choi, S., A. S. Mattila and L. E. Bolton (2021): To Err Is Human(-oid): How Do Consumers React to Robot Service Failure and Recovery?, Journal of Service Research, 24(3), pp.354-371
Robots are the next wave in service technology; however, this advanced technology is not perfect. This research examines how social perceptions regarding the warmth and competence of service robots influence consumer reactions to service failures and recovery efforts by robots. We argue that humanoid (vs. nonhumanoid) service robots are more strongly associated with warmth (whereas competence does not differ). This tendency to expect greater warmth from humanoid robots has important consequences for service firms: (i) consumers are more dissatisfied due to lack of warmth following a process failure caused by a humanoid (vs. nonhumanoid; Study 1); (ii) humanoids (but not nonhumanoids) can recover a service failure by themselves via sincere apology, restoring perceptions of warmth (Study 2A); (iii) humanoids (but not nonhumanoids) can also effectively provide explanations as a recovery tactic (Study 2B); and, importantly, (iv) human intervention can be used to mitigate dissatisfaction following inadequate recovery by a nonhumanoid robot (Study 3), supporting the notion of human-robot collaboration. Taken together, this research offers theoretical implications for robot anthropomorphism and practical implications for firms employing service robots.
Feng, S. and T. V. Krishnan (2021): Contract Length Determination in the B2B Service Industry: Role of Economic Factors, Business Relationship, and Learning, Journal of Service Research, (), pp.1
In B2B markets, when firms sign contracts for transactions pertaining to the exchange of services that are delivered over a period of time, one critical decision they make is the length (or duration) of the contract. If the services are hired for a long project, companies often sign multiple, successively run contracts with the same vendor. This is prevalent in projects such as when multinational companies hire consulting firms like Accenture to streamline and digitize their business processes, when big banks in developing countries hire firms like Tata Consultancy Services to extend banking facilities into rural markets, and when oil companies hire rig firms to drill oil wells. From a traditional economic perspective, companies would decide on an optimal contract length that is not too long or too short; the former disables the firms from reacting to market changes while the latter makes negotiation costs expensive. However, when a company signs a series of successive contracts with a service-firm, both companies get to learn about the other company’s goals and operations dynamically, which might influence the length of each contract in the series. Thus, determining the contract length in a series of successive contracts is more challenging. In this study, we build a contract length determination model that considers both the economic factors and the dynamic learning. The model provides managers with a theoretical yet practical tool to make optimal decisions on contract length. We use data from the oil-drilling industry to empirically test the proposed model.
Kuppelwieser, V. G. and P. Klaus (2021): Revisiting the Age Construct: Implications for Service Research, Journal of Service Research, 24(3), pp.372-389
People in the older consumer segment spend more money on services than those in other segments, making them a desired target for service providers. This universal trend has led researchers to start discussing this trend’s implications for service research and marketing practice. These discussions’ results are ambiguous because service researchers and managers face the problem of having to choose between three main age constructs: chronological age, cognitive age, and future time perspective (FTP). Unfortunately, current age-related research lacks an understanding of their real value, as only a few studies have combined them to discuss their specific impact. Recognizing this gap in the literature, this article compares the three age constructs in behavioral and perceptional settings. We highlight each age construct’s merits and weaknesses as well as exploring which construct delivers the best results in which service context. Bayesian analyses of our data reveal that chronological age has its merits as a control variable but does not sufficiently discriminate between age groups’ behavior and perceptions. Cognitive age is useful if customers’ own age perceptions are included but only identifies age differences in specific service settings. FTP consistently detects age-related differences in customers’ perceptions and in their behavior in all contexts.
Lavoie, R., K. Main, J. Hoegg and W. Guo (2021): Employee Reactions to Preservice Tips and Compliments, Journal of Service Research, 24(3), pp.421-434
Preservice tips are becoming increasingly common in the marketplace (e.g., online food delivery, quick-service restaurants). While prior research has investigated how the practice of preservice tipping is perceived by customers, how preservice tipping impacts the perceptions and behaviors of employees remains unexplored. Does tipping early actually elicit better service? Through a series of four studies, our research compares the effectiveness of tips—a financial incentive, with compliments—a nonfinancial incentive. The results indicate that early tips and compliments are both effective in obtaining better service, but the relative effectiveness of a tip versus a compliment depends on the service context. In closed service contexts—which involve a continuous, relatively short interaction—tips are superior. For example, when getting a drink at a bar, buying a sandwich at a quick-service restaurant, or dropping off a car for valet parking, tipping early should lead to better customer service. In contrast, in open service contexts—which involve multiple interactions over a more extended period and provide an opportunity for a social connection—compliments become more effective. The results have practical implications for customers wishing to enhance their service experiences and for managers in motivating their employees.
Troebs, C.-C., T. Wagner and W. Herzog (2021): Do Customer Discounts Affect Frontline Employees?, Journal of Service Research, 24(3), pp.390-404
Customer discounts continue to be one of the most central promotional tools. While discounts effectively serve important corporate objectives, they may also exhibit additional unanticipated effects on internal stakeholders involved in the value creation process. This research examines the impact of customer discounts on frontline service employees. One experimental study and two field investigations are presented. The findings underline that customer discounts made salient by their redemption, frequency, and depth (i.e., magnitude) reduce frontline employees’ experienced task significance as well as their perceived appreciation by the firm. Discounts also exert destructive indirect effects on frontline employees’ workplace responses including their intrinsic motivation, ambivalent identification, and turnover intentions as mediated by task significance and appreciation. These indirect effects are for the most part driven by perceived appreciation, serving as a key mechanism in employees’ cognitive processing of customer discounts. The present findings provide first evidence that customer discounts can provoke undesired effects upon firms’ service workforce in tandem with fulfilling promotional objectives and stimulate the need for a better coordination between firms’ service and promotional activities.
Voorhees, C. M., J. M. Beck, P. Randhawa, K. B. DeTienne and S. A. Bone (2021): Assessing the Effects of Service Variability on Consumer Confidence and Behavior, Journal of Service Research, 24(3), pp.405-420
This research examines the effects of service variability on consumer confidence and behavior across multiple transactions in a service relationship. This article integrates discussions of service relationships and models of service variability. Leveraging a field study, the authors track over 12,000 experiences across 3,084 consumers for a 2-year period and model the impact of variability in these experiences on consumer relationships. The results reveal variability in a service relationship can significantly impact consumer confidence and that the nature of this relationship is nonlinear, revealing that small variations in quality will have strong effects on confidence and that these effects plateau as variability increases. Despite these overall effects, we also demonstrate that the positive benefits of service improvement strategies can offset these effects. Finally, in a second study, the results suggest firms can insulate themselves from the effects of variability by encouraging consumer involvement in relational investments (i.e., loyalty programs) that provide consumers with both interpersonal (i.e., status) and economic resources (i.e., points). Taken together, the results demonstrate that consumers integrate evaluations across transactions when evaluating a service provider, thus focusing on a single transaction, in isolation, may not accurately capture consumers’ perceptions of the service relationship.
Yue, Y., H. Nguyen, M. Groth, A. Johnson and S. Frenkel (2021): When Heroes and Villains Are Victims: How Different Withdrawal Strategies Moderate the Depleting Effects of Customer Incivility on Frontline Employees, Journal of Service Research, 24(3), pp.435-454
Withdrawal from work by frontline employees (FLEs) is generally perceived by managers as counterproductive or anti-service behavior. However, there may be detrimental effects of continuing to provide a service, particularly after an FLE has experienced incivility. The possible beneficial effects of withdrawal on frontline service employees’ well-being have rarely been investigated. In this article, we conducted two studies to examine the moderating role of on- and off-task withdrawal behaviors on the relationship between customer incivility and employees’ emotional exhaustion. In Study 1, we examined parking officers’ reactions to customer incivility. We found support for the role of off-task withdrawal as a resource-replenishing strategy, which mitigated the relationship between customer incivility and emotional exhaustion. In Study 2, we examined a sample of nurses in a large hospital to compare the replenishing potential of both on-task and off-task withdrawal strategies. We found that off-task withdrawal served a replenishing function, while on-task withdrawal aggravated nurses’ feeling of emotional exhaustion as a result of customer incivility. These results highlight different resource implications, including recovery benefits of short-term withdrawal behaviors at work, and provide important theoretical and practical implications for the management of customer incivility and frontline service employees’ well-being and performance.
Amine, A., A. Bonnemaizon and M. Josion-Portail (2021): The effect of carers’ healthcare practices on the categorization of elderly patients as vulnerable, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(5), pp.604-616
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show that the categorization of elderly patients as vulnerable is affected by health-care service interactions with caregivers, which may increase, reduce or even negate entirely elderly patients’ vulnerable status. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reports the results of a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews conducted with a large and varied sample of health-care personnel in charge of elderly patients in two hospital geriatric departments in France. Findings: Findings show that the limits of the service-dominant logic approach when the service (care) relationship concerns vulnerable individuals who are, completely or partially, unable to take part in the co-creation of the service and the roles played by caregivers as resource integrators (intermediaries, facilitatorapomediaries and transformativeapomediaries) and that this affects the categorization of elderly patients as vulnerable. Research limitations/implications: The results enrich knowledge about the service relationship with vulnerable people by showing that the categorization of elderly patients as vulnerable is not immutable but stems from the dynamics among actors that may variously “reify it” (contribute to its internalization), “reduce it” (enable access to aspects of normal life), or “neutralize it” (help free this cohort from their categorization as vulnerable). Practical implications: The findings provide insights for care providers by stressing the need to raise awareness among hospital staff regarding their active role in affecting the categorization of elderly patients as vulnerable through their care practices. In the context of public health policies, the findings show that the regulatory injunction to empower patients to preserve their well-being tends to produce the opposite effect on the frailest patients, who are unable to participate in their care pathway. Originality/value: The research shows that categorization as vulnerable, in the health-care services context, is affected by the care interactions between caregivers and elderly patients. The support provided to hospital staff in this context helps to maintain patients’ well-being and dignity.
Bianchi, C. (2021): Exploring how internet services can enhance elderly well-being, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(5), pp.585-603
Purpose: This study aims to investigate how Internet services can improve the well-being of elderly consumers. Drawing on transformative service research (TSR) and technology adoption literature, it examines the main challenges for the elderly when adopting Internet services and how they and their family members can co-create value to improve the elderly service inclusion and well-being. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative methodology is used to identify challenges, value co-creation behaviors and well-being outcomes of elderly individuals and their family members when using Internet services. The data collection method involved 24 in-depth interviews with consumers over 75 years of age and their family members. Findings: This research first recognizes specific challenges for the elderly in adopting Internet services related to resistance to technology adoption and health impairments. Second, the findings identify value co-creation behaviors held by elderly consumers of Internet services: learning and formal training, complying with indications and seeking help when they encounter problems with technology. Family members also contribute to elderly well-being through two value co-creation behaviors: helping and supporting elderly relatives with technology and being patient and tolerant when they need support. Finally, these behaviors are found to influence five dimensions of elderly consumers’ well-being: enjoyment, personal growth, mastery, autonomy and social connectedness. Originality/value: This study addresses a gap in the literature by exploring the value co-creation behaviors of elderly consumers of Internet services and their family members for improving well-being outcomes. Understanding value co-creation and well-being for elderly consumers of Internet services is an emerging and under-researched area in TSR and service inclusion literature.
Black, H. G., V. Jeseo and L. H. Vincent (2021): Promoting customer engagement in service settings through identification, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(4), pp.473-486
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically test some of the consumer engagement frameworks that have been previously proposed in marketing literature. Design/methodology/approach: Data were gathered via surveys distributed to members of a health club in the USA. Results were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings: We found the effects of satisfaction on intercustomer support – the assistance received from other customers within a service setting – to be fully mediated by customer identification. The strength and direction of effects differed based on the type of identification. They also found an effect of satisfaction on customer patronage frequency. This effect was fully mediated by customer–employee identification. Practical implications: The findings illustrate that, in most cases, intercustomer support can be built and enhanced by focusing on customer identification. Both customer–company and customer–customer identification had a positive effect on social/emotional and instrumental support; however, they did not influence a consumer’s patronage frequency. Conversely, customer–employee identification decreased perceptions of instrumental support, but increased perceptions of social/emotional support and patronage frequency. While the findings indicate that identification with a firm’s employees drives a customer’s patronage, firms must decide if the benefits received from increased patronage are worth the decreased instrumental support. Originality/value: Past research has demonstrated the benefits of intercustomer support at both the firm and customer level, yet little research has investigated what enhances intercustomer social support in an organization. The research answers this question and illuminates some specific mechanisms that mediate this effect. Additionally, while previous research indicates that intercustomer support drives objective outcomes such as firm performance and loyalty intentions, we instead found these outcomes to be driven by customer–employee identification.
Bonamigo, A. and C. G. Frech (2021): Industry 4.0 in services: challenges and opportunities for value co-creation, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(4), pp.412-427
Purpose: This study aims to recognize industry 4.0 opportunities and challenges associated with the co-creation of value in industrial services and to propose a theoretical framework for smart industrial services systems. Design/methodology/approach: The authors carried out a systematic literature review based on the systematic search flow method; thereafter, the authors used the content analysis proposed by Bardin (2011) to analyze the resulting portfolio. Findings: The authors identified a total of five industry 4.0 opportunities and five challenges for co-creating value in industrial services. Drawing upon these findings, this paper builds a theoretical framework for the smart industrial services system, in which the industry 4.0 opportunities arise from the digitally mediated inter-firm interactions and the challenges related to the resources of this system. Research limitations/implications: This study may not have enabled a complete coverage of all existing peer-reviewed articles in the field of value co-creation in industrial services associated with the industry 4.0 technologies. Also, the framework is constrained by being theoretical rather than empirically grounded. Practical implications: The findings give managers support to devise strategies for overcoming the barriers that impede them from taking advantage of the opportunities offered by industry 4.0 for co-creating value in industrial services. Originality/value: This paper’s uniqueness is to identify the industry 4.0 opportunities and challenges for value co-creation in the context of industrial services and to propose a framework for the smart industrial services system.
Cao, Z. (2021): The impact of social visibility of VIP services on satisfaction, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(5), pp.647-656
Purpose: From the perspective of customer segmentation, most scholars show more interest in the very important person (VIP) customer’s service experience and satisfaction; however, the way in which ordinary customers view VIP services has received less attention. Based on fairness heuristic theory and social comparison theory, this study aims to examine the impact of the social visibility of VIP services on ordinary customers’ satisfaction and explored the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions of this effect. Design/methodology/approach: Two experiments were conducted, Study 1 verified the main effect and mediating effect, Study 2 tested the moderating effect. Findings: The results show that the social visibility of VIP services decreases ordinary customers’ satisfaction and perceived fairness mediates this effect. The deservingness of VIP status moderates the connection between social visibility and perceived fairness. Research limitations/implications: This research changes the objects of VIP services research and focuses on ordinary customers as its main group and expands the scope of social comparisons among customers. Practical implications: The findings expand the scope and perspective of research on VIP services and provide guidance to service providers to reduce ordinary customers’ feelings of unfairness so as to improve customer satisfaction. Originality/value: This study explores the effect of the social visibility of VIP services on ordinary customer satisfaction from the perspective of perceived fairness, as well as the underlying mechanism and boundary conditions of the effect.
Dou, X., A. Fan and L. Cai (2021): Mobile contextual marketing in a museum setting, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(5), pp.559-571
Purpose: This paper aims to investigate how the contextual marketing strategy facilitated by mobile technology enhances consumers’ purchase intention and experiential quality in a hedonic service setting – museum. Specifically, this study explores the impacts of a context-triggered push notification promoting context-related souvenirs embedded in the museum mobile app on visitors’ souvenir purchase intention and visit experience. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted a scenario-based experimental design with video stimuli and a follow-up survey questionnaire. A total of 151 participants were randomly assigned to one of the two art museum visiting scenarios (i.e. with vs without the in-app push notification). A series of one-way ANOVA comparisons and serial mediation tests were conducted for hypotheses testing. Findings: The results show that the mobile app promoting context-related souvenirs positively affects museum visitors’ souvenir purchase intention without undermining their experiential quality. The serial mediation effects through contextual perceived value and impulse buying tendency further explain how the in-app push notification influences visitors’ souvenir purchase intention. Originality/value: This study extends the contextual marketing research to a unique service domain (i.e. museum) and contributes to the service technology literature. The findings present empirical evidence for the effectiveness of mobile contextual marketing and its potential to enhance consumers’ experiential quality in a hedonic service setting. The current research provides practical guidelines to both the museum management and mobile app developers.
Goode, S. (2021): A cognitive social capital explanation of service separation distress, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(4), pp.487-504
Purpose: Service separation distress arises when service consumers worry that a useful service may become unavailable. This paper aims to integrate two theoretical explanations of ongoing service use, being service continuance and relationship commitment and a common foundation of cognitive social capital. Design/methodology/approach: This study conducts an online survey of 245 cloud service consumers, which to test the research model is used. Findings: This paper finds that relationship commitment mediates the service continuance explanation in explaining service separation distress. Research limitations/implications: While service features are important, they are less important than the consumer’s perceived relationship with the service in promoting perceived service separation distress. Contrary to expectations, the finding identified the service relationship as the dominant explanation for service separation distress. Practical implications: Jeopardy to the consumer-provider relationship can create greater anxiety and distress to consumers than a disruption that threatens service features alone. Adding service features may not reduce customer separation distress regarding the service. Social implications: The unified cognitive social capital lens on service separation suggests that consumers value service provider relationships (e.g. commitment and trust) over service features. A stronger social relationship with the consumer, in turn, strengthens the perceived service offering. Originality/value: This is among the first studies to unify two explanations of service continuance using social capital and to empirically identify how this explanation affects service distress.
Jayasimha, K. R., H. S. Srivastava and S. Manoharan (2021): Contamination fear and ABS during COVID-19, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(5), pp.657-670
Purpose: Access-based services (ABS) have been adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to validate customer barriers to ABS focusing on the contamination barrier. As service employees’ presence violates the COVID-19 physical distancing norms and heightens contamination fear, this paper tests its effects on continued use intentions of ABS. This study also empirically examines the role of conspicuous virtue signaling and organizational response. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in the context of scooter sharing and uses a mixed-method to explore the relatively under-researched problem of contamination fear in ABS. Study one uses the survey method and study two uses a 2 × 2 matrix between-subject design. Findings: The results reveal that perceptions of resource sufficiency positively affect continued use intentions of ABS. The presence of a service employee hurts continued use intentions. Further, there are a three-way interaction between ABS type (service employee presence/absence), organizational response (solution-oriented/general information) and resource sufficiency perceptions. Organizational response mitigates the negative effect of service employee presence on the link between resource adequacy perceptions and ABS continued use intentions. Originality/value: In contrast with prior research, this study shows that contamination fear invokes protection motivation, resulting in better preparedness and continued use intentions of ABS. The predicted difference is primarily between customers who attribute responsibility and ABS type differently (presence/absence of service employee). This study also explores the role of organizational response to COVID-19.
Johnson, C., T. Kaski, Y. Karsten, A. Alamäki and S. Stack (2021): The role of salesperson emotional behavior in value proposition co-creation, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(5), pp.617-633
Purpose: This paper aims to focus on how salespeople use emotions to build connections and facilitate value proposition co-creation (VPCC) in B2B complex services sales. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses video recordings of authentic B2B sales meetings in a two-part qualitative study. Findings: This paper proposes a set of salesperson emotional behaviors that influence the co-creation of value propositions with customers. This paper uncovers five salesperson emotional behavior archetypes influencing VPCC. Research limitations/implications: This study advances the value proposition literature by linking salespeople’s emotional behaviors with micro-level activities in the collaborative crafting of value propositions. The unique methodology may encourage researchers to apply video recordings in future studies. Practical implications: The study provides managerial guidelines for improved selling competence and sales team organization. Originality/value: This study’s findings represent a new insight into the actual manifestations of salesperson emotional behaviors that are commonly discussed but rarely observed directly.
Kim, J.-H. (2021): Service authenticity and its effect on positive emotions, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(5), pp.572-584
Purpose: This paper aims to report that authenticity is a crucial factor in determining consumer behavior. To ensure that customers feel a sense of authenticity, service organizations and researchers must understand the factors that convey perceived authenticity. Therefore, this study uses multiple features of perceived service authenticity (i.e. continuity, consistency, uniqueness, talent, scarcity, honesty and traditional) and examines their effects on positive emotions in a traditional restaurant service context. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 342 surveys were collected using a panel data service in China. This study examined the structural relationships among perceived service authenticity, positive emotions and revisit intention using AMOS. Additionally, a multigroup analysis was conducted to identify the moderating effect of individuals’ psychological traits (i.e. nostalgia proneness). Findings: The results indicated that all service authenticity dimensions except continuity significantly enhance positive emotions. Furthermore, positive emotions significantly enhanced revisit intention. The results also revealed that nostalgia proneness moderates the effects of service authenticity on positive emotions. Practical implications: The results provide important insights into how to increase customers’ perceived service authenticity and positive emotions. Originality/value: This research is a pioneering effort to conceptualize a multiple-dimensional structure of the authenticity model and test its appropriateness in a traditional restaurant context. Furthermore, this study is one of the first attempts to develop an authenticity model that links service authenticity, positive emotions, revisit intention and the moderator of nostalgia proneness based on the Mehrabian and Russell model.
Li, S., Y. Hu, L. Xu and G. Fu (2021): Exploring regulatory fit between service relationships and appeals in co-production, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(4), pp.505-515
Purpose: This paper aims to explore how different service relationships (mentoring relationship versus partnering relationship) in service co-production affect service outcomes. Specifically, it aims to explore whether the effects of service relationships on customers’ intention to purchase the service are contingent upon service appeals’ regulatory focus (promotion versus prevention focus) and when the regulatory fit effects exist. Design/methodology/approach: Three experimental studies were conducted to test hypotheses. ANOVA and bootstrapping were used to analyze the data. Findings: The findings of the three experiments provide convergent evidence for the hypotheses. Specifically, when customers view service employees as mentors (versus partners) in service co-production, promotion-focused (versus prevention focused) service appeals effectively enhance customers’ intention to purchase the service because customers experience a regulatory fit. Moreover, the regulatory fit effects are strengthened or attenuated according to customers’ subjective social status. Practical implications: Service firms should adopt promotion-focused (versus prevention-focused) service appeals if employees and customers are having mentoring (versus partnering) relationships, especially when customers have higher (lower) social status. Originality/value: To better manage service co-production, this paper investigates beneficial outcomes of mentoring and partnering relationships from a regulatory fit perspective. It highlights the importance of compatibility between service relationship and service appeals’ regulatory focus and demonstrates a novel regulatory fit effect. It also uncovers engagement as the underlying mechanism for the regulatory-fit effect and identifies social class as a boundary condition.
Majid, K. A., D. W. Kolar and M. Laroche (2021): Support for small businesses during a health crisis, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(5), pp.671-683
Purpose: Crises threaten the operations of small businesses and endanger their survival; however, when the crisis is not attributable to the firm, consumers may rally around the business. This study aims to examine how attitudes toward helping others can create support for small businesses, which in turn can direct consumers to help businesses with increased financial support. It is hoped that this paper will inform how consumers will help firms pivot during crises. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual model was proposed which linked support for helping others to increased willingness to tip/amount tipped. The model was tested using structural equation modeling from two surveys given to customers of two small businesses, a coffee shop and an independent movie theater, respectively. Findings: During a crisis, support for helping others has a positive impact on feelings of support for small businesses. Consumers direct their support to small businesses that they are interested in seeing survive and continue operations. They either tip more or tip when they otherwise would not have tipped. Practical implications: Firms that pivot their operations because of a crisis imposed on them can still generate revenues. Consumers who have a self-interest in the continuing operations of the firm want to support it, and by pivoting their business model, the firm gives consumers the opportunity to give the firm and its employees more than they would have in the form of tips. Originality/value: Prior work in crisis management has focused primarily on how firms recover and respond to a crisis of their doing. Overwhelmingly, consumers have been shown to punish firms during times of crisis. However, for a crisis that is imposed on the firm, consumers may rally behind the firm and respond by supporting it more than they are required to.
Miller, C. J., A. Samper, N. Mandel, D. C. Brannon, J. Salas and M. Troncoza (2021): Activity apprehension in experiential purchases, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(4), pp.516-534
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how the number of activities within a multi-activity experience influences consumer preferences before and after consumption. Design/methodology/approach: The hypotheses are tested using four experiments and a secondary data set from a river cruise firm that includes first-time river cruise purchases by consumers from this firm between January 2011 and December 2015 (n = 337,457). Findings: Consumers prefer experiences with fewer (vs more) activities before consumption – a phenomenon, this paper calls “activity apprehension” – but prefer experiences with more (vs fewer) activities after consumption. A mediation analysis indicates that this phenomenon occurs because the highly perishable nature of activities makes consumers uncertain about their ability to use all the activities within the experience (usage uncertainty). Practical implications: Evaluations of a multi-activity experience depend on both the number of activities and on whether the consumer is at the pre- or post-consumption stage of the customer journey. As such, firms looking to sell multi-activity experiences should design and promote these experiences in a way that minimizes activity apprehension. Originality/value: This study is the first to demonstrate that consumer perceptions of an optimal experience depend on both the number of included activities and on the stage of the customer journey (i.e. pre- or post-purchase). It further contributes to the consumer experience literature by examining an unexplored activity characteristic, perishability, in shaping experiential purchase decisions. Finally, it demonstrates a new way in which experiential purchases differ from tangible product purchases.
Parkinson, J. and J. Davey (2021): Meeting of the minds: research priorities for value co-creation in dialogical conferences, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(4), pp.401-411
Purpose: This paper aims to explain the development of the dialogical conference, develop a framework for understanding the social construction of the dialogical conference and provide research priorities for further developing the practice in the services marketing discipline. Design/methodology/approach: The growing challenge for service researchers is to generate new theory and knowledge to solve complex problems. Dialogical conferences offer an avenue to develop solutions in response to this challenge. Value co-creation provides a useful lens through which to view dialogical conferences. We draw on Ranjan and Read’s (2016) value-in-use and value co-production and Ramaswamy and Ozcan’s (2018) interactive engagement platforms for value co-creation. Mindful of the contributions of both, the paper presents an integrative framework that describes the relationships between the concepts to provide a firm grounding for developing dialogical conferences. Findings: By mapping value co-creating activities in dialogical conferences according to the APPI framework – artifacts, persons, processes and interfaces – on to value-in-use and value co-production, we propose a new category of value-in-use, equality, to the conceptualisation of value co-creation outcomes. Equality in contribution, attribution and effort is under-represented in value co-creation. Originality/value: Dialogical conferences are increasingly important for knowledge generation and creating potential for action, yet are underexplored in service research. This paper contributes to the literature by using service logic and dialogical conferences to extend our knowledge of value co-creation interactive platforms and outcomes. Second, we demonstrate the value of dialogical conferences for facilitating meaningful service research and knowledge development. Finally, the authors identify research priorities to encourage further work on extending the understanding and application of dialogical interactive platforms and value co-creation to enable the service community to be responsive in solving complex problems through service offerings.
Wallace, E. and I. Buil (2021): A typology of conspicuous donation on Facebook, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(4), pp.535-552
Purpose: This study aims to present a typology of Facebook followers of charities, drawing on theories of value co-creation, impression management and conspicuous donation behavior. Design/methodology/approach: Data from 234 students based in an Irish University and 296 adults in the USA were subjected to cluster analysis. Findings: Four segments were identified, common to both samples. Quiet donors are less likely to engage with a charity on Facebook, yet they may donate to the charity. They follow a charity if it offers intrinsic meaning, and they quietly donate money. Facebook expressives mention charities on Facebook to impress others, but have low intention to donate. Following the charity on Facebook is a means to virtue signal, but it helps to spread word of mouth. Friendly donors are active on social media and engage with charities on Facebook when there is personal meaning, and they will donate. Following the charity offers them intrinsic value, and their Facebook mentions promote the charity online. Finally, dirty altruists are motivated by a desire to help, but also to impress others. They will donate, but they will ensure to highlight their good deed on Facebook, to virtue signal. Originality/value: The study contributes to the literature investigating individuals’ motivations to connect with charities through social media and suggests value co-created by types of charity followers on Facebook.
Wang, E. J., P. R. Berthon and N. N. Bechwati (2021): The effect of mindfulness on service encounter quality, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(4), pp.453-472
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the effect of employees’ state mindfulness, a short period of mindful presence, on the quality of the service they provide in a service encounter. Design/methodology/approach: Three studies are conducted. A pilot study explores the relationship between state mindfulness and service encounter quality. Experiment 1 examines whether a 15-min mindfulness exercise results in an increase in service employees’ state mindfulness. Experiment 2 tests whether induced state mindfulness produces higher service quality and whether a reminding technique can prolong state mindfulness between service encounters. Findings: The results demonstrate the following. First, that more mindful employees provide better service quality. Second, that a short, easily implemented, mindfulness exercise can reliably increase employees’ state mindfulness. Third, induced mindfulness has an impact on subsequent service quality in terms of reliability, assurance, empathy and responsiveness. These effects persist regardless of the service encounter structure (high vs low structure) or the degree of emotional labor involved (high vs low emotionally charged). Finally, the reminding technique developed as part of this research suggests that state mindfulness can be maintained between service encounters. Research limitations/implications: As simulated (programmed) customers are used, independent evaluators to assess service quality are used. Service providers in this study are college students; future field studies should consider a wider range of service providers. The research focuses on state mindfulness; exploration of trait mindfulness offers future research opportunities. Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research is the first to empirically examine the link between mindfulness and service quality. It shows that mindfulness can be induced, and through a reminding technique be maintained, and improve service quality across service interactions. This is a powerful finding for marketing managers, for it offers a new method to enhance service provision. Moreover, this research implies that the increase in service quality is likely to be accompanied by reduced job burnout: a double win for employees, employers and customers.
Waseem, D., S. Biggemann and T. Garry (2021): An exploration of the drivers of employee motivation to facilitate value co-creation, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(4), pp.442-452
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the drivers of employee motivation to facilitate value co-creation. Specifically, it enhances the understanding of social and contextual elements that contribute towards the co-creation of value. Design/methodology/approach: Embracing an interpretive paradigm, the study draws on 57 in-depth interviews together with participant observation field notes. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings: The findings identify six key drivers that motivate employees to facilitate value co-creation: rewards and recognition, opportunities for life-long learning, interpersonal engagement, role responsibility and accountability, organisational vision and social purpose. Research limitations/implications: This study is undertaken within a traditional organisation setting. Other organisational contexts such as working from home should also be considered. Second, this study focused on the individual relational orientations of employees. Also, there is an opportunity to explore the collective orientation of employees. Originality/value: Drawing on service-dominant logic (S-D logic) as a theoretical lens, this study adopts and adapts Lindenberg and Steg’s (2013) goal-framing theory to conceptualise six drivers of employee motivation to facilitate value co-creation within three-goal frames that leads to in-role and extra-role job performance.
Yen, H. R., P. J.-H. Hu and Y.-C. Liao (2021): Transforming the role of frontline service employees for cross-selling, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(4), pp.428-441
Purpose: This study aims to examine how a manager’s learning goal orientation (LGO) influences frontline service employees’ (FSEs’) engagement in cross-selling activities. Such engagements must exist before they can achieve service–sales ambidexterity. Drawing on achievement goal theory and the meaning-making perspective, this study predicts that learning-oriented managers encourage and foster FSEs’ cross-selling behaviors by facilitating their ability to derive positive meaning from the cross-selling initiative. They do so by conveying high-quality information about the initiative and related changes to individual employees, as well as by encouraging the formation of a collective perception of open communications within the work unit. Design/methodology/approach: Hierarchical (nested) data from 39 managers and 357 FSEs of a major logistic service company are used to test the hypotheses. Findings: As predicted, a manager’s LGO relates positively to FSEs’ cross-selling activities, through sequential mediations of the hypothesized communication mechanisms and employees’ benefits-finding. Originality/value: A manager’s LGO is an important antecedent of FSEs’ cross-selling behaviors. This study establishes this influence and clarifies the processes by which it occurs. This study also extends previous research by specifying the important role of employees’ meaning-making, which prompts them to adopt cross-selling, as a mediator of the multilevel communication influences that result from their managers’ LGO.
Zhang, L., I. Pentina and Y. Fan (2021): Who do you choose? Comparing perceptions of human vs robo-advisor in the context of financial services, Journal of Services Marketing, 35(5), pp.634-646
Purpose: This study aims to investigate the differences in consumers’ perceptions of trust, performance expectancy and intention to hire between human financial advisors with high/low expertise and robo-advisors. Design/methodology/approach: Three experiments were conducted. The respondents were randomly assigned to human advisors with high/low expertise or a robo-advisor. Data were analyzed using MANCOVA. Findings: The results suggest that consumers prefer human financial advisors with high expertise to robo-advisors. There are no significant differences between robo-advisors and novice financial advisors regarding performance expectancy and intention to hire. Originality/value: This pioneering study extends the self-service technology adoption theory to examine adoption of robo-advisors vs human financial advisors with different expertise levels. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, it is among the first studies to address multi-dimensionality of trust in the context of artificial intelligence-based self-service technologies.
Adalja, A., F. Livat, B. Rickard and A. Susskind (2021): Old World and New World Sparkling Wines: Consumer Decisions and Insights for Retailers, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(3), pp.346-356
The objective of this research is to examine consumer demand for sparkling wines. We developed a laboratory experiment to collect data on consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for selected wines from France, Spain, and the United States (Finger Lakes) under different information treatments. Our results suggest that expenditures and consumption frequency for all wines are most important to WTP and notably that familiarity with sparkling wines was relatively important for the “local” U.S. wine among the consumers in our sample. We discuss the important implications of our findings for managers of small U.S. wineries building their reputations and for restaurants and other food service outlets interested in attracting a broader consumer base.
Agarwal, V., J. V. Koch and R. M. McNab (2021): Airbnb’s Success: Does It Depend on Who Is Measuring?, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
Because individual listing data for Airbnb typically are not publicly available, private companies have emerged to estimate the performance of Airbnb listings. The implicit assumption of a growing number of academics, policymakers, and consultants is that Airdna’s performance measures are directly comparable with those of STR. We argue that Airdna’s measures of Occupancy, Average Daily Rate (ADR), and Revenue per Available Room (RevPAR) do not conform to industry standards and exhibit significant bias. We expand available evidence by explicitly quantifying the sources and magnitude of the biases for Airdna’s performance measures for Airbnb listings. Using Airdna’s individual listing data for Virginia between the first quarter of 2015 and the 4th quarter of 2019, we find, on average, Airdna’s performance measures for Occupancy, ADR, and RevPAR were biased upward by 60 percent, 78 percent, and 179 percent, respectively.
Bonn, M. A., Y. Chun, J. J.-E. Yoo and M. Cho (2021): Green Purchasing by Wine Retailers: Roles of Individual Values, Competences and Organizational Culture, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(3), pp.324-336
The wine industry impacts the environment due to its massive scale of production, distribution, and retail. Wine retailers’ green purchasing is essential for changing environmental initiatives because purchasing is a key function for managing an upstream supply chain and to further achieve sustainability throughout the entire supply chain. Thus, this study was designed to identify important drivers of wine retailers’ green purchasing by incorporating both individual factors (values and competences) and organizational culture. Hierarchical linear modeling was employed to analyze the nested data obtained from 457 purchasing managers working for 10 wine retail companies in the United States. Results documented that individual values (social desire and moral attitudes), cognitive competence, and organizational culture such as the ethical behavior of top management, positively and directly influenced wine retailers’ green purchasing behavior. In addition, the study findings revealed that the effects of individual values and cognitive competence on wine retailers’ green purchasing behavior were positively enhanced when organizational culture was formed based on top management’s ethical behavior, codes of conduct and incentives. Implications for developing effective methods for improving wine retailers’ green purchasing behavior are presented and discussed.
Brewster, Z. W., K. Gourlay and G. R. Nowak, III (2021): Are Black Restaurant Servers Tipped Less Than White Servers? Three Experimental Tests of Server Race Effects on Customers’ Tipping Behaviors, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
A limited number of published studies have presented evidence indicating that restaurant customers discriminate against Black servers by tipping them less than their White coworkers. However, the cross-sectional, localized, and small samples that were analyzed in these extant studies do not support any unqualified claim that consumer racial discrimination in tipping practices is a widespread phenomenon. Thus, in an effort to further clarify the relationship between restaurant servers’ race and customers’ tipping practices, we present results from three survey experiments designed to assess the causal effect of servers’ race on customers’ tipping intentions. In three independent, demographically diverse, and relatively large samples of U.S. consumers, we found no evidence to conclude that all else being equal consumers discriminate against Black restaurant servers by tipping them less than comparable White servers. Furthermore, the null effects of servers’ race on customers’ tipping practices were not found to be sensitive to variation in service quality, dining satisfaction, servers’ sex, customers’ sex, or customers’ race. Our results challenge the generalizability of the previously observed server race effects on customers’ tipping practices and point toward the need for future research that aims to advance our understanding of the conditions under which customers’ tipping practices are sensitive to the perceived race of their server. The implications of our results for restaurant operations and directions for future research are also discussed.
Chen, F., D. Quadri-Felitti and A. S. Mattila (2021): Generation Influences Perceived Coolness But Not Favorable Attitudes Toward Cool Hotel Brands, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
Although cool brands are increasingly popular in the marketplace, there is scant research examining generational differences in consumers’ coolness perceptions. To address this gap, the present research investigates consumers’ perceived coolness of hotels and the consequent brand attitudes among four generations of consumers. Our findings suggest that perceived coolness of a hotel brand varies across generations. Baby Boomers’ perceptions of cool hotels are different from younger generations including Gen Z, Millennials, and Gen X. However, all generations show positive attitudes toward hotel brands that they recognize as cool due to perceived autonomy. This research contributes to the hospitality literature on hotel branding. Managerial implications for hospitality marketers are discussed.
Chen, F. F., S. Q. Liu and A. S. Mattila (2021): Ethnic Restaurants: Bringing Uniqueness to the Table Through Handwriting, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
While the restaurant industry is seeing an unprecedented rise of ethnic restaurants, the existing hospitality literature provides little guidance on how to enhance perceived uniqueness of ethnic menu offerings through visual design. The present research offers an innovative marketing strategy (i.e., using real handwriting in menus) to boost consumer evaluations. From a consumer behavior perspective, we examine the impact of menu style (handwriting vs. print) and the moderating roles of restaurant busyness (busy vs. non-busy) and gender (female vs. male) on consumers’ menu processing. Findings of this research show that handwriting offers a competitive advantage when the restaurant is less busy and when the consumer is a male. Moreover, the moderated mediation results reveal that perceived uniqueness of ethnic menu offerings is the underlying mechanism explaining the impact of menu style, busyness, and gender on consumer attitudes toward the menu. Theoretical and managerial implications for hospitality managers are discussed.
Du, J., E. Ma, X. Lin and Y.-C. Wang (2021): Authentic Leadership and Engaging Employees: A Moderated Mediation Model of Leader–Member Exchange and Power Distance, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
This study developed and tested a multilevel, moderated mediation model of whether, how, and when authentic leadership can affect employee work engagement in a hotel context, building on social exchange theory. A two-wave data collection process gathered 440 valid responses of hotel frontline employees from five-star hotels in China. The result supported a positive influence of authentic leadership on work engagement and the mediating role of leader–member exchange (LMX). Hotel employees’ perceived power distance orientation moderated the indirect relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement through LMX. In contrast to previous studies supporting the negative effect of power distance on employee behavior, the present findings suggest that power distance strengthens the relationship between authentic leadership and hotel employees’ work engagement. This study contributes to authentic leadership literature and provides insights into how interactions between personal and contextual factors affect authentic leadership’s influence on work engagement in hospitality organizations.
Kwon, W., M. Lee and J. T. Bowen (2021): Exploring Customers’ Luxury Consumption in Restaurants: A Combined Method of Topic Modeling and Three-Factor Theory, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
This study explores customers’ perceptions and underlying factors related to luxury consumption in restaurants. Although many studies have explored customers’ consumption of luxury goods, very few of these studies involved luxury hospitality services. Furthermore, hospitality literature has rarely discussed the emerging identification of inconspicuous consumption in luxury. By applying topic modeling to analyze online customer reviews, the current study identifies the essential elements of visiting luxury restaurants. Moreover, it elicits the asymmetric role of the identified factors in accelerating overall customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction through impact-asymmetry analysis, which adopts the three-factor theory. Findings suggest that many inconspicuous factors exist in luxury consumption and that the mechanisms that affect satisfaction differ among a satisfier, a dissatisfier, and a hybrid. The acknowledgment of the asymmetric effects will help practitioners in luxury restaurants enhance their understandings of customer perceptions and efficiently improve service management and marketing.
LaTour, K. A., A. Joy and R. Noujeim (2021): Developing Wine Appreciation for New Generations of Consumers, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(3), pp.337-345
Wine education poses a paradox to the industry: consumers both say they desire to know more about wine, yet they also report being overwhelmed and confused. In addition, the traditional analytic approach to wine education has involved teaching consumers a “grid” with rules for analysis that rely heavily on language which younger consumers in particular report disliking. A holistic approach to learning about wine was shown to be effective for more expert consumers, but those researchers did not consider how the learning approach affected their overall liking of the wine. Our first study considers teaching young consumers (Gen Z and millennials) through a holistic technique (involving drawing the wine’s taste) to a more verbal analytic approach (writing decompositional tasting notes) with consumers having some prior wine education and those without any. We find that the holistic approach led to greater liking for the wine, particularly with consumers having no prior wine education. We also found that consumers with prior wine education desired a more eudaimonic approach to their learning than new wine consumers. Both levels of prior experience desired a hedonic learning experience. Although we and other research groups have found younger consumers receptive to wine education, some have suggested that the wine industry is losing touch with younger consumers. We partnered with a digitized wine tasting platform, QUINI, to determine generational differences in their consumers’ engagement. In preparation for Study 2 we mined 3 years of data, and then conducted an online survey of three generations of their wine consumers in terms of their interest and education in wine. We discuss our results and implications for how managers might seek to engage new wine consumers, particularly in the virtual world.
Lu, L., N. Neale, N. D. Line and M. Bonn (2021): Improving Data Quality Using Amazon Mechanical Turk Through Platform Setup, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
As the use of Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) has increased among social science researchers, so, too, has research into the merits and drawbacks of the platform. However, while many endeavors have sought to address issues such as generalizability, the attentiveness of workers, and the quality of the associated data, there has been relatively less effort concentrated on integrating the various strategies that can be used to generate high-quality data using MTurk samples. Accordingly, the purpose of this research is twofold. First, existing studies are integrated into a set of strategies/best practices that can be used to maximize MTurk data quality. Second, focusing on task setup, selected platform-level strategies that have received relatively less attention in previous research are empirically tested to further enhance the contribution of the proposed best practices for MTurk usage.
O’Neill, J. W. and J. Yeon (2021): Comprehensive Effects of Short-Term Rental Platforms Across Hotel Types in U.S. and International Destinations, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
In recent years, short-term rental platforms in the lodging sector, including Airbnb, VRBO, and HomeAway, have received extensive attention and emerged as potentially alternative suppliers of services traditionally provided by established commercial accommodation providers, that is, hotels. Short-term rentals have dramatically increased the available supply of rooms for visitors to multiple international destinations, potentially siphoning demand away from hotels to short-term rental businesses. In a competitive market, an increase in supply with constant demand would negatively influence incumbent service providers. In this article, we examine the substitution effects of short-term rental supply on hotel performance in different cities around the world. Specifically, we comprehensively investigate the substitution effects of short-term rental supply on hotel performance based on hotel class, location type, and region. Furthermore, we segment the short-term rental supply based on its types of accommodations, that is, shared rooms, private rooms, and entire homes, and both examine and quantify the differential effects of these types of short-term rentals on different types of hotels. This study offers a comprehensive analysis regarding the impact of multiple short-term rental platforms on hotel performance and offers both conceptual and practical insights regarding the nature and extent of the effects that were identified.
Schamel, G. and F. J. Santos-Arteaga (2021): Metrics on Restaurant Ordering Behavior, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 62(3), pp.386-404
The academic literature analyzing the behavior and interactions among commensals at a table generally resorts to experimental settings with volunteer decision makers or focuses on receipts issued at actual restaurants. The experimental approach widens the potential scope of the phenomena that can be analyzed but is subject to observer effects, with decision makers being aware of the fact that their actions are being monitored. The approach using receipts is not subject to observer effects but limited in its scope by lacking interactions with the commensals and the data that can be collected. In the current article, we make extensive use of a data set collected by restaurant personnel following specific instructions. They gathered information on a number of decisions made at the table throughout the whole meal without the commensals being aware that they are being monitored. As a result, we are able to examine empirically the importance that the choices of the first-person ordering (the leader) may have for the decisions made by the other commensals at the table. In particular, we study the similarity of orders—in terms of dishes, drinks, and prices—between the table leader and the other commensals. Our results reveal that table leaders, both male and female, have a considerable influence on the choices made by other commensals under a variety of different scenarios. We also describe the differences arising when males and females act as table leaders, as well as the influence that specific payment arrangements have on the ordering behavior of the commensals.
Schwartz, Z., T. Webb and J. Ma (2021): Hotel Analytics: The Case for Reverse Competitive Sets, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
Hotel industry practitioners and scholars expressed concerns regarding the reliability of the commonly used comparative performance indices, given the subjective nature of the competitive (comp) sets. This study explores the potential of two alternative comp sets: reverse and name-back. It is demonstrated that they have a higher level of integrity as they moderate the values of a traditional comp set–based RevPAR (revenue per available room) index, are simple to implement, and are more dynamic. The study shows analytically and empirically that the two are likely to mitigate biases and that the reverse comp set appears to be more effective than the name-back. Multiple practical implications are outlined and discussed.
Vashdi, D. R., T. Katz–Navon and M. Delegach (2021): Service Priority Climate and Service Performance Among Hospitality Employees: The Role of Emotional Labor and Workload Pressure, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
Frontline hotel employees face a complex organizational environment that constantly makes multiple demands, creating a persistent trade-off between service as a key element of the organization’s strategy and other competing or even conflicting goals. This study proposes an integrated and unique way of discerning the relationship between service climate and service performance through the prism of surface and deep acting emotional labor and suggests a new dimension of the service climate—the service priority climate. Specifically, we examined employees’ use of emotional labor strategies as a mechanism that explains the relationship between service priority climate and service performance. We also investigated whether workload pressure influences this relationship. Using a multilevel, multisource study, we surveyed a sample of 245 hotel employees working in 39 departments and their direct managers. The results demonstrated that when employees regarded service as a priority compared with other competing goals, they used more deep acting emotional labor strategies, resulting in better service performance. However, this was apparent only when workload pressure was low. Implications for hospitality organizations are discussed.
Xu, S., L. R. Martinez and H. Van Hoof (2021): How Team Emotions Impact Individual Employee Strain Before, During, and After a Stressful Event: A Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, (), pp.1
Employee strain is a significant and costly issue for hospitality organizations. This study investigated the change trajectory of strain pre, during, and post a discrete stressful event and how cohesion and group emotional variability altered the shape of the trajectory. Using an experience sampling method approach, we gathered 402 daily observations from 84 workers in a period that included a specific stressful event, the opening of a one-night “theme dinner” restaurant that catered to dinner guests from the general public. We used latent growth curve modeling to investigate the change of strain among employees over time. The results showed that indicators of strain displayed inverted U-shaped trajectories (i.e., strain increased before and decreased after the stressful event) and that group cohesion and emotional variability affected the starting value and the change trajectory of strain. By investigating strain on a daily basis and considering group-based influences in response to discrete stressful events, this study provides significant implications to the hospitality literature and suggestions to hospitality managers on how to alleviate the impact of strain among their workforces.
Vilnai-Yavetz, I., S. Gilboa and V. Mitchell (2021): Experiencing atmospherics: The moderating effect of mall experiences on the impact of individual store atmospherics on spending behavior and mall loyalty, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 63(), pp.102704
Retailers invest in atmospherics to create effective environments that engage shoppers in their shopping journey and promote business success. However, the link between store-level atmospherics and mall-level experiences remains opaque. In a quasi-experimental field study, we confirm that the quality of in-store atmospherics positively impacts in-store spending and reveal for the first time that it also positively influences loyalty intentions toward the mall as a whole. Both effects are mediated by perceived store atmosphere and moderated by mall experiences. The effects on spending are stronger for shoppers who are seeking hedonic experiences (seductive, recreational, and social) and are less interested in the functional experience. However, the impact on mall loyalty is stronger for shoppers pursuing material (functional) and avoiding social experiences. For retailers and mall owners, these findings underscore the importance of matching store atmospherics with mall experiences. Similarities and differences in the effects of atmospherics between and within the store and mall levels are discussed.
Abboud, L., N. As’ad, N. Bilstein, A. Costers, B. Henkens and K. Verleye (2021): From third party to significant other for service encounters: a systematic review on third-party roles and their implications, Journal of Service Management, 32(4), pp.533-559
Purpose: Dyadic interactions between customers and service providers rarely occur in isolation. Still, there is a lack of systematic knowledge about the roles that different types of nontechnological third parties – that is, other customers, pets, other employees and other firms – can adopt in relation to customers and service providers during encounters. The present study aims to unravel these roles and highlight their implications for customers, service providers and/or third parties. Design/methodology/approach: This research relies on a systematic review of literature in the Web of Science using a search string pertaining to the research study’s objectives. In total, 2,726 articles were screened by title and abstract using clear inclusion and exclusion criteria, thereby extracting 189 articles for full-text eligibility. The final sample consisted of 139 articles for coding and analysis. Findings: The analyses reveal that other customers, pets, other employees and other firms can adopt five roles: bystander, connector, endorser, balancer and partner. Each role has different implications for customers, service providers and/or third parties. Additionally, the five roles are associated with distinct constellations of the customer, the service provider and the third party. These roles and constellations are dynamic and not mutually exclusive. Originality/value: This research contributes to the service encounter literature by providing a thorough understanding of the various third-party roles and their implications for customers, service providers and/or third parties during encounters. As such, this research sheds light on the conditions under which third parties become “significant others” in service encounters and identifies avenues for future research.
Baker, J. J., T. Kearney, G. Laud and M. Holmlund (2021): Engaging users in the sharing economy: individual and collective psychological ownership as antecedents to actor engagement, Journal of Service Management, 32(4), pp.483-506
Purpose: This conceptual study explicates the dynamic, interlinked relationship between two of the most popular theories in marketing today: psychological ownership (PO) and engagement. The study is set in the sharing economy (SE), where platform business success depends on high levels of engagement by users, both individuals and collectives. The study argues individual PO (iPO) acts as the antecedent to engagement within a dyad of brand and user, and collective PO (cPO) as the antecedent to collective engagement by communities of users. Design/methodology/approach: This conceptual study synthesizes PO theory and engagement theory to produce a PO–engagement framework. The authors adopt a dual-level perspective encompassing individual- and group-level phenomena in the SE and employ examples from practice to illustrate their arguments. Findings: PO acts as the antecedent to the positively valenced disposition and engagement activities of actors in the SE. iPO manifests as engagement within a dyad of brand and user. Outcomes include brand love and contributions to brand reputation and service offerings. Collective PO manifests as engagement within a community or collective. Outcomes include community-oriented peer-to-peer (P2P) sharing for the benefit of others. Originality/value: This study offers a dynamic framework of PO and engagement in the SE, the PO–engagement framework. The authors contribute to PO and engagement literature studies in marketing by illustrating how a platform user’s attachment to targets in the SE motivates emergence of PO, and how different types of engagement manifest from different types of PO.
Beverungen, D., D. Kundisch and N. Wünderlich (2021): Transforming into a platform provider: strategic options for industrial smart service providers, Journal of Service Management, 32(4), pp.507-532
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify strategic options and challenges that arise when an industrial firm moves from providing smart service toward providing a platform. Design/methodology/approach: This conceptual study takes on a multidisciplinary research perspective that integrates concepts, theories and insights from service management and marketing, information systems and platform economics. Findings: The paper outlines three platform types – smart data platform, smart product platform and matching platform – as strategic options for firms that wish to evolve from smart service providers to platform providers. Research limitations/implications: Investigating smart service platforms calls for launching interdisciplinary research initiatives. Promising research avenues are outlined to span boundaries that separate different research disciplines today. Practical implications: Managing a successful transition from providing smart service toward providing a platform requires making significant investments in IT, platform-related capabilities and skills, as well as implement new approaches toward relationship management and brand-building. Originality/value: The findings described in this paper are valuable to researchers in multiple disciplines seeking to develop and to justify theory related to platforms in industrial scenarios.
Bromuri, S., A. P. Henkel, D. Iren and V. Urovi (2021): Using AI to predict service agent stress from emotion patterns in service interactions, Journal of Service Management, 32(4), pp.581-611
Purpose: A vast body of literature has documented the negative consequences of stress on employee performance and well-being. These deleterious effects are particularly pronounced for service agents who need to constantly endure and manage customer emotions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and describe a deep learning model to predict in real-time service agent stress from emotion patterns in voice-to-voice service interactions. Design/methodology/approach: A deep learning model was developed to identify emotion patterns in call center interactions based on 363 recorded service interactions, subdivided in 27,889 manually expert-labeled three-second audio snippets. In a second step, the deep learning model was deployed in a call center for a period of one month to be further trained by the data collected from 40 service agents in another 4,672 service interactions. Findings: The deep learning emotion classifier reached a balanced accuracy of 68% in predicting discrete emotions in service interactions. Integrating this model in a binary classification model, it was able to predict service agent stress with a balanced accuracy of 80%. Practical implications: Service managers can benefit from employing the deep learning model to continuously and unobtrusively monitor the stress level of their service agents with numerous practical applications, including real-time early warning systems for service agents, customized training and automatically linking stress to customer-related outcomes. Originality/value: The present study is the first to document an artificial intelligence (AI)-based model that is able to identify emotions in natural (i.e. nonstaged) interactions. It is further a pioneer in developing a smart emotion-based stress measure for service agents. Finally, the study contributes to the literature on the role of emotions in service interactions and employee stress.
Stead, S., G. Odekerken-Schröder and D. Mahr (2021): Unraveling customer experiences in a new servicescape: an ethnographic schema elicitation technique (ESET), Journal of Service Management, 32(4), pp.612-641
Purpose: This article investigates the role of schemas in shaping customer experiences in new servicescapes, across the customer journey. The authors take a customer perspective that reveals how schematic information processing takes place at four pyramidal levels—event, touchpoint, encounter and concrete activities—that in turn lead to customer responses. Design/methodology/approach: The study introduces a novel ethnographic schema elicitation technique (ESET), which enables unraveling schemas at the touchpoint level across the customer journey of a European grocery store that recently launched a new SST innovation. This tailored approach provides fine-grained insights into customer experiences at the moment they occur. Findings: The conceptual framework unravels schematic information processing, as illustrated with an empirical study. The activation of different schemas and their modification is highlighted in rich qualitative data. Research limitations/implications: Innovative service offerings require customers to adapt their existing behaviors. Understanding this highly individual process, which requires schema modification, could be furthered by longitudinal in-depth research. Practical implications: By understanding schematic information processing, managers and policymakers can develop better strategies for activating sustainability or health-conscious schemas that guide customer behavior in positive directions. Originality/value: By applying ESET to new self-service technology, the authors provide valuable insights for service managers and retailers. They show the particular need for prudence in changing schemas in ways that avoid negative cognitive, emotional or behavioral responses.
Vakeel, K. A., E. C. Malthouse and A. Yang (2021): Impact of network effects on service provider performance in digital business platforms, Journal of Service Management, 32(4), pp.461-482
Purpose: Digital business platforms (DBPs) such as Alibaba and Google Shopping are partnership networks that use the Internet to bring service providers (e.g. retail vendors) and customers together. One of the benefits of DBPs is network effects, in which customers can purchase from multiple providers, giving rise to a unique network. However, few studies have explored which service providers benefit from network effects and which do not. Design/methodology/approach: Using the theories of transaction costs and network analysis, the authors apply network models to DBPs to understand which service providers benefit from network effects. Findings: The authors identify three segments of service providers: (1) those with high prominence (connection to providers with high network centrality), (2) those with high network constraint (adjacent to isolated providers) and (3) those with low prominence and constraint. The authors find that segments (1) and (3) benefit from reciprocated customer exchanges, and thus benefit from network effects, while high constraint segment (2) providers do not benefit from reciprocated exchanges. Moreover, the authors find that for segments (2) and (3) future sales have a negative association with unreciprocated customer exchanges, while segment (1) has no significant association between unreciprocated exchanges and future sales. Research limitations/implications: The authors discuss implications for a multisided platform (MSP), as it decides which service providers to attract, promote and recommend. They can use this study’s results to know which segments of providers will increase network effects to make the platform more valuable. Practical implications: This paper provides managers of service platforms with strategies for managing relations with their service providers. Social implications: Service platforms are an important and disruptive business model. The authors need to understand how network effects operate to create efficient platforms. Originality/value: This paper extends the literature on MSPs by quantifying network effects and showing not all service providers benefit equally on an MSP from network effects. Critical insights into network effects on the MSP are provided, including different ways it can impact provider sales.
Vogus, T. J., L. E. McClelland, Y. S. H. Lee, K. L. McFadden and X. Hu (2021): Creating a compassion system to achieve efficiency and quality in health care delivery, Journal of Service Management, 32(4), pp.560-580
Purpose: Health care delivery is experiencing a multi-faceted epidemic of suffering among patients and care providers. Compassion is defined as noticing, feeling and responding to suffering. However, compassion is typically seen as an individual rather than a more systemic response to suffering and cannot match the scale of the problem as a result. The authors develop a model of a compassion system and details its antecedents (leader behaviors and a compassionate human resource (HR) bundle), its climate or the extent that the organization values, supports and rewards expression of compassion and the behaviors and practices through which it is enacted (standardization and customization) and its effects on efficiently reducing suffering and delivering high quality care. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a conceptual approach that synthesizes the literature in health services, HR management, organizational behavior and service operations to develop a new conceptual model. Findings: The paper makes three key contributions. First, the authors theorize the central importance of compassion and a collective commitment to compassion (compassion system) to reducing pervasive patient and care provider suffering in health care. Second, the authors develop a model of an organizational compassion system that details its antecedents of leader behaviors and values as well as a compassionate HR bundle. Third, the authors theorize how compassion climate enhances collective employee well-being and increases standardization and customization behaviors that reduce suffering through more efficient and higher quality care, respectively. Originality/value: This paper develops a novel model of how health care organizations can simultaneously achieve efficiency and quality through a compassion system. Specific leader behaviors and practices that enable compassion climate and the processes through which it achieves efficiency and quality are detailed. Future directions for how other service organizations can replicate a compassion system are discussed.
Bast, A., M. T. Røhnebæk and M. Engen (2021): Co-creating dementia care: manoeuvring fractured reflexivity in service design, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(5), pp.665-690
Purpose This study aims to theorise and empirically investigate how vulnerable users suffering from cognitive impairments can be involved in service design. Design/methodology/approach The data were collected through an ongoing field study following the processes of designing new forms of dementia care. The data consist of document studies, observations and interviews with actors involved in the service design process. Findings The findings demonstrate how the involvement of vulnerable users with cognitive impairment in service design requires the ability to manoeuvre users’ “fractured reflexivity”. The design process was found to be constrained and enabled by three interrelated features: cognitive aspects, social aspects and representativeness. Practical implications This paper provides insight into concrete ways of involving vulnerable user groups in service design. The introduced concept – fractured reflexivity – may create awareness of how the involvement of users with cognitive impairment can be difficult but is also valuable, providing a means to rethink what may enable involvement and how to manage the constraints. Originality/value Although design processes rely on reflexivity, there is limited research addressing how reflexivity capacity differs among actors. The authors contribute by exploring how fractured reflexivity may aid the analysis and understandings of intertwined issues related to the involvement of users with cognitive impairment. Therefore, this study initiates research on how service design entails enactments of different modes of reflexivity. The paper concludes with directions for future research avenues on service design and reflexivity modes.
Namisango, F., K. Kang and J. Rehman (2021): Service co-creation on social media: varieties and measures among nonprofit organizations, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(5), pp.783-820
Purpose Little is known about the variations in service co-creation on social media, despite the resource integrating capabilities and co-creator roles afforded by these platforms. The gap is even more troubling in the nonprofit sector, where leveraging public interaction on social media is prevalent and vital to charitable and philanthropic endeavors. Arguably, such interaction is embedded in resource integrating activities leading to nonprofit service co-creation. This paper reports the forms, dimensions or service co-creation measures enabled by social media use in the nonprofits’ sector. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a sequential exploratory mixed methods design. First, the authors interviewed 19 social media managers in education, health and social service nonprofit organizations to identify the varieties in service co-creation realized. Second, the authors surveyed 73 nonprofit organizations on social media and gathered 267 useable responses, which were used to analyze and validate the identified forms of service co-creation. Findings The authors found that nonprofit organizations realize up to seven forms of service co-creation using social media. These include co-ideating to tweak service ideas, co-diagnosing social needs and problems, co-assessing service events, co-transforming services to targeted communities, co-advocating for community and service reach, co-resourcing in service delivery, and co-experiencing through a pool of diverse service experiences. Originality/value This study develops a reliable and valid multidimensional measure for nonprofit service co-creation enabled by social media platforms. Theoretically, this study offers a nonprofit service co-creation model to drive nuanced explanatory research and service co-creation perspectives in other contexts and engagement platforms. Managerially, this research illustrates the variations in service co-creation, which inform the strategic value of social media to nonprofits and will assist nonprofit practitioners in planning and evaluating their service co-creation outcomes.
Pasca, M. G., M. F. Renzi, L. Di Pietro and R. Guglielmetti Mugion (2021): Gamification in tourism and hospitality research in the era of digital platforms: a systematic literature review, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(5), pp.691-737
Purpose The present study aims to synthesize and conceptualize, through a systematic literature review (SLR), the current state of gamification knowledge in the tourism and hospitality (T&H) sector, providing a roadmap for future research recommendations for service research and practice. Design/methodology/approach The research is based on a systematic literature review and adopts a systematic quantitative approach to summarize existing evidence on gamification usage in the T&H sector, focusing on relevant service literature on gamification. The authors analyze 36 papers published between 2011 and 2019. Findings The authors synthesize existing knowledge into five themes describing gamification’s role in T&H (Edutainment, Sustainable behavior, Engagement factors, Service provider-generated content and User-generated reviews). Then, a cross-analysis of the five themes reveals the pivotal elements (affordances, behavioral and psychological outcomes, and benefits) generated by gamification mechanics in T&H, simultaneously highlighting potential implications and relevant insights for service literature. The review identifies critical issues affecting gamification research and provides a future research agenda, considering opportunities for T&H and service research. Originality/value The study provides the first SLR investigating gamification in T&H. The findings present potential implications and relevant insights for T&H contributing to the construction of a more holistic understanding of gamification adoption in service research.
Quratulain, S., A. Ejaz and A. K. Khan (2021): Do self-monitors experience less emotional exhaustion? Testing the role of supervisor-rated performance and perceived competitive climate, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(5), pp.738-755
Purpose The purpose of this research is to examine frontline employees’ self-monitoring personality as an antecedent of their emotional exhaustion and how supervisor-rated performance mediates this relationship. In addition, the authors explored the moderating role of perceived competitive climate on the indirect relationship between self-monitoring and emotional exhaustion. Design/methodology/approach Two hundred and thirty-seven frontline employees and their immediate supervisors working in hospitality organizations responded to the survey using time lagged research design. Measurement model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis to assess the distinctiveness of study constructs, and proposed moderated mediation model was tested using Process macro. Findings Results show that high self-monitoring leads to high supervisor-rated performance, and this relationship is stronger in highly competitive work climate. The supervisor-rated performance was negatively related to emotional exhaustion. Originality/value This study is the first to examine the interaction effects of self-monitoring and perceived competitive climate on frontline employees’ performance and emotional exhaustion, particularly in the frontline jobs. Supervisor-rated performance has not been previously theorized or researched as an underlying mechanism of the effect of self-monitoring on emotional exhaustion.
Tsai, K.-H. and L.-l. Zheng (2021): Bridging employee curiosity and service creativity: a new lens, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(5), pp.821-844
Purpose This study develops a framework to examine how, why and when different traits of employee curiosity affect service creativity by considering the roles of knowledge sharing and task autonomy. Design/methodology/approach To reduce common method bias, this work separated the variables investigated into three parts, each of which was randomly used to collect data at three different periods. A total of 822 matched questionnaires obtained from frontline employees of service firms provided useable data for hypothesis tests. A moderated mediation approach was employed to analyse the data. Findings Results are as follows: (1) Deprivation sensitivity, joyous exploration and social curiosity have positive effects on knowledge collecting (KC) and knowledge donating (KD). (2) KD mediates the relationships between the three curiosity traits and service creativity. (3) Task autonomy enhances and suppresses the mediating effects of KC and KD, respectively, on the curiosity–service creativity relationship. Research limitations/implications This study has two main research implications: First, as different types (traits) of employee curiosity have different effects on service creativity, a single-dimensional view of employee curiosity may mask the differences of individual dimension and lead to a oversimplified conclusion. Second, lifting the vein from employee curiosity to service creativity has to consider the roles of knowledge sharing and task autonomy. Originality/value This research is the first to contribute to the service innovation literature by revealing the underlying mechanisms through which different types of employee curiosity affect service creativity and uncovering the moderating roles of task autonomy in the process mechanisms.
Warden, C. A., S. C.-T. Huang, W.-H. Yen and J. F. Chen (2021): The Tao of consumption: private self in a collective culture, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(5), pp.756-782
Purpose Collectivism in service research is so bound with Asian cultures as to risk being overly deterministic. Contesting this stereotype, this paper surfaces the individualistic consumption facets of consumers within a collectivist cultural setting, describing the compensating role servicescapes may play and the service marketing opportunities they present. Design/methodology/approach Within a Chinese cultural research frame, a qualitative grounded approach is adopted that surfaces subconscious metaphors of private consumption through photo elicitation, deep psychological metaphor elicitation and triangulated with field observation. Findings Individuals within a collectivist culture do actively seek private psychic space to regenerate the self and prepare for social obligations heavily influenced by Confucian norms. Servicescapes play an important role in private consumption as they provide both a physical and mental oasis of privacy not easily obtainable in regular life and work. Practical implications Service providers could offer East Asian consumers a package that includes the individual aspect of their value system, whenever and however they see suitable. More specifically, servicescapes can be designed to provide services that facilitate consumer restoration by implementing the mental metaphors consumers of have this process. Social implications A stereotype of a consumption has grown around Chinese consumers that while not totally false, misses a vital aspect of human values and risks missing profitable market niches. Consideration of the whole person’s collective-individualistic cycle benefits both the consumer and the business. Originality/value Moving beyond a one-dimensional description of East Asian consumer behavior, focused on collective values, we show the key role servicescapes play in private consumption. A psychological renewal of the self, in preparation to re-enter the collective, show the multiple aspects of Asian consumers.
Clement Addo, P., J. Fang, A. O. Asare and N. B. Kulbo (2021): Customer engagement and purchase intention in live-streaming digital marketing platforms: 实时流媒体数字营销平台中的客户参与和购买意向, Service Industries Journal, 41(44512), pp.767-786
The lack of human and social cues and customer engagement impedes traditional e-commerce until the birth of social commerce. This study investigates how customer engagement in live-streaming digital marketing affects purchase intentions. The results of 1726 datasets from two e-commerce platforms suggest that customer engagement is significantly associated with followership and purchase intention in live-streaming digital marketing. Whiles price is a significant moderator, its effects become insignificant on their purchase intentions once consumers become followers. The results highlight the positive impacts of social elements, including likes, chats, visits, and exposure time in social commerce towards transactional (purchase) and non-transactional (followership) benefits. Finally, the paper introduces a new perception of measuring customer engagement in live-streaming digital marketing and calls for further research into this new paradigm of social commerce to promote business and service provisions even with the restrictions of COVID-19. (English)
Khaddam, A. A., A. Alzghoul, M. A. Abusweilem and F. Abousweilem (2021): Business intelligence and firm performance: a moderated-mediated model, Service Industries Journal, (), pp.1-17
This study examines the mediating role of decision-making speed on the causal chain linking business intelligence and firm performance, as well as the contextual role of people-BI tools fit on the causal link between business intelligence and decision-making speed. To achieve this goal, we examine the proposed moderated-mediated model using a random sample of 236 valid responses in various Jordanian industries. These data were analyzed using a partial least squares structural equation modeling technique. According to the findings, business intelligence facilitates and enhances greater decision-making speed; decision-making speed fosters higher firm performance; and decision-making speed mediates the causal relationship between business intelligence and firm performance. Finally, people-BI tools fit attenuated the causal relationship between business intelligence and decision-making speed, in that the relationship became weaker when people-BI tools fit is higher. Results are discussed in terms of the relevant literature and practical implications for managers in the industry. (English)
Huang, Y.-S. and W.-K. Kao (2021): Chatbot service usage during a pandemic: fear and social distancing, Service Industries Journal, (), pp.1-21
Health organizations have relied heavily on social distancing to limit the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this research is to examine what factors can influence customers’ evaluations of social distancing as well as how and when these evaluations drive their usage of chatbot services. Using structural equation modeling to analyze the experimental data from 200 U.S. consumers, we found that when the service situation is utilitarian (hedonic) in nature, customers’ contamination fear influences their chatbot usage during service encounters through their social distancing attitudes (subjective norms) and then perceived usefulness of chatbots. Our findings provide meaningful theoretical contributions and practical implications. (English)
Legendre, T. S. and S. Lee (2021): Investigating customers’ system justifying responses: application of system justification theory, Service Industries Journal, 41(44512), pp.832-851
Brand failures are detrimental for the business success. However, the extant literature has not yet investigated in what situation a brand failure can be perceived more negatively than has been previously thought. Grounded in system justification theory, this study investigates the influence of system threat on customers’ system justifying behaviors (willingness to forgive and purchase intention). Using different service contexts, this study executes three 2 × 2 between-subjects experiments to investigate the moderating roles of brand failure domain (Study 1 and Study 2 (replication)) and brand loyalty (Study 3). The results show that when a system threat occurs due to brand failure, customers perceive the failure worse than predicted, triggering system justifying behavior, especially when a brand failure occurs in brand essence, and when customers are not part of a loyal customer group. Our results suggest brand management strategies that can better manage system threatening brand failures and customers’ system justifying behaviors. (English)
Kandampully, J., A. Bilgihan and D. K. Li (2021): Unifying technology and people: revisiting service, Service Industries Journal, (), pp.1-21
Trade is as ancient as civilization; it has been an essential part of every society as a means of acquiring and/or exchanging goods and services. Trade, therefore, has always depended heavily on human interaction between the ‘producer and customer’ on the foundation of interdependence through communication, friendship, trust, and relationship. Over the past 100 years or so, varying degrees of a new element – digital technology –have been incorporated into the relationship between the producer and consumer. The introduction of technology to the concept of trade was intended to mutually benefit both producer and customer. However, technology’s role and its influence as part of this delicate interdependent relationship have not been well understood or discussed in the literature. Our study illustrates the critical role of the human factor and the growing importance of technology in all industry sectors and in societies. We call for the growing need for a unified approach where humans and technology will not only co-exist but, more importantly, will collectively bring about many positive changes to benefit both the firm and the society, or in other words, both producer and customer. (English)
Kim, H., Y. G. Kim and E. Woo (2021): Examining the impacts of touristification on quality of life (QOL): the application of the bottom-up spillover theory, Service Industries Journal, 41(44512), pp.787-802
The main purpose of this study is to understand touristification and the influence of this phenomenon on residents’ quality of life (QOL). The finding of the study will lay a foundation for further Touristification research. (English)
De Crescenzo, V., A. Monfort, J. A. Felício and S. Ribeiro-Navarrete (2021): Communication and the role of third-party endorsement in social crowdfunding, Service Industries Journal, (), pp.1-28
Many studies have underlined the role of updates, pictures, videos, and narrative sections in reducing information asymmetry and producing positive signaling effects for crowdfunding projects. However, research on the role of external entities that partially co-finance projects and thus mitigate information asymmetry problems is almost non-existent. Based on fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), this study focuses on two groups of factors capable of mitigating asymmetric information problems: content communication (measured by words, videos, pictures, and updates) and endorsement from third-party. The study sample consists of 114 successful social crowdfunding projects posted on Eppela, an Italian crowdfunding platform launched in 2011. The study provides new evidence of the role of third-party investors. In social crowdfunding, the relevance of content communication seems to vary depending on the presence or absence of a third-party investor. The study also highlights the role of a broad content communication approach in fundraising in the social crowdfunding market. (English)
Augustyn, M. M., I. A. Elshaer and R. K. Akamavi (2021): Competing models of quality management and financial performance improvement, Service Industries Journal, 41(44512), pp.803-831
Six competing models of quality management and financial performance improvement are hypothesized and statistically tested, using data from a survey of general managers of 288 four- and five-star hotels in Egypt and structural equation modeling. The comparative analysis of the conceptually and structurally different models suggests that financial performance can be improved when quality management is viewed holistically as a commonality of its interconnected practices (top management leadership; employee management; customer focus; supplier management; process management; quality data and reporting). Managers must therefore integrate stakeholders into design and implementation of effective quality management systems. This study: advances knowledge of the roles of alternative models of quality management in improving financial performance; deepens our understanding of the main features of a quality management system capable of enhancing organizational performance; and contributes to ongoing debates in quality and service management literature on factors that impact financial performance. (English)
Arici, H. E. and M. Uysal (2021): Leadership, green innovation, and green creativity: a systematic review, Service Industries Journal, (), pp.1-41
Conceptual and empirical progress have failed to keep up with growing industry interest in leadership, green innovation, and green creativity in the service industries. The purpose of this study is to address this gap by reviewing the literature on the relationship between leadership and green innovation/creativity. A total of 65 studies indexed in the Scopus database are analyzed. A systematic review and thematic analysis are performed utilizing Leximancer mixed analysis software. Descriptive findings are provided under eight categories: (1) studies by journal, (2) by method, (3) by time, (4) by country, (5) correlations between leadership and green innovation/creativity, (6) commonly used scales of green innovation and creativity, (7) summary of moderators, and (8) summary of mediators between leadership and green innovation/creativity. The findings show that there is a growing interest in the causal relationships among leadership and green innovation/creativity, and that Asian countries dominate the study domain. This study proposes a taxonomy of mediators and moderators. A concept map illustrating the main themes and concepts is also presented, and the study concludes by offering an agenda for future research. This study contributes to a deep understanding of the mechanisms underlying green innovation/creativity in the service context as well as extending research on the leadership–green-innovation/creativity nexus. (English)
Matzner, M., T. Pauli, E. Marx, J. Anke, J. Poeppelbuss, E. Fielt, S. Gregor, R. Sun, K.M. Hydle, T.H. Aas, M. Aanestad, J. Gordijn, F. Kaya, R. Wieringa (2021): Transitioning to Platform-based Services and Business Models in a B2B Environment, Journal of Service Management Research, 5 (3), pp. 143-162,
Given the considerable success of companies such as Apple, Amazon or Airbnb, the term platform is on everyone’s lips today. Accordingly, platforms have long since also found their way into service science. However, mastering the transition from established product-sales-based offerings to platform-based services and business models comes with a multitude of challenges. In a B2B context, incumbent companies need to carefully evaluate how they can benefit from the establishment of platforms, especially in light of the effects on their existing business models and ties to other actors. Hence, we invited scholars with different backgrounds to provide viewpoints on the opportunities and challenges of the transition to platform-based services and business models in a B2B environment. The individual commentaries provide various insights on how to conduct this transition and benefit from it successfully. To do so, they contrast different approaches for establishing and governing ecosystems around platforms, discuss B2B-specific pitfalls and opportunities of platform business models, uncover the supporting role of platforms for smart service development, and stress the importance of platform and ecosystem thinking as a necessary mindset.
Wenzel, S. and M. Benkenstein (2021): No Risk – More Fun? The Influence of Shopping Companions on Adolescents’ Risk Perception and Hedonism, Journal of Service Management Research, 5 (3), pp. 163-175,
Increasing autonomy in purchasing decisions within adolescence leads to a high degree of uncertainty. Previous research has revealed that assistance to minimizing consumer risk has been identified as one of the predominant motives for shopping with a companion. Even though accompanied shopping is a significant characteristic of adolescent consumer behaviour, only a few studies have addressed this topic so far. We conduct five studies to address this issue. Two laboratory studies and three field studies demonstrate that a shopping companion does not reduce adolescents’ perceived risk. Furthermore, this finding applies not only to teenagers, but also to adults. Based on these results, other factors and influences that determine shopping together are examined, as is their actual implementation. Two field studies show a positive effect of a shopping companion on adolescents’ consumer experience. Accompanied consumers enjoy shopping much more than solo shoppers, which mediates the relationship between shopping situation (solo vs. with a companion) and shopping experience satisfaction.
Akalan, R. (2021): Business Solutions in the B2B World – A Systematic Literature Review, Journal of Service Management Research, 5 (3), pp. 176-195,
In an increasingly competitive environment, manufacturers are seeking for new ways of sustainable growth. Different resources (i.e., products, services, knowledge) are integrated into innovative business solutions to solve an entire customer problem. Business solution research is a dynamic research domain with a continuously increasing research output. This study provides a systematic literature review on business solution research. It reviews 355 articles from 1964 to 2020. On the one hand, the review’s objective is to develop a consistent definition and to retrace the evolutionary path of business solutions. On the other hand, the review aims to investigate outcomes and challenges of business solutions and uncover existing research gaps. These insights can help researchers to gain a quick and up-to-date snapshot of business solution research. Managers can benefit by understanding conceptual foundations of business solutions and potential risks, challenges, and outcomes.
Hendricks, J., G. Schmitz, Z. Ates, M. Büttgen (2021): Value Co-Creation and Co-Destruction in Health Care: Analyzing Citizenship and Dysfunctional Patient Behavior in Nurse-Patient Encounters, Journal of Service Management Research, 5 (3), pp. 196-214,
Patients interact with various health care service network partners, whereby nurses play an integral role in providing health care services on the patient level. Drawing on social exchange theory and considering citizenship and dysfunctional patient behavior from a value co-creation (and even co-destruction) perspective, the purpose of the present study is to identify drivers that promote citizenship and reduce dysfunctional patient behavior in service interactions with nurses at the same time. Using PLS-SEM and survey data from 404 inpatients, results demonstrate the importance of perceived citizenship behavior of nurses for patient citizenship behavior by showing a significant direct effect (and partially even an indirect effect mediated by patients’ positive emotions) on all identified forms. However, it provides little chances to reduce dysfunctional patient behaviors, as there hardly exists any significant (direct or indirect) effect.