Considered Service-specific journals were Journal of Service Research, Journal of Service Management, Journal of Services Marketing, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, Service Industries Journal, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, and Service Science.
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Köcher, S. and S. Köcher (2021): The Mode Heuristic in Service Consumers’ Interpretations of Online Rating Distributions, Journal of Service Research, 24(), pp.1
In this article, the authors demonstrate a tendency among consumers to use the arithmetic mode as a heuristic basis when drawing inferences from graphical displays of online rating distributions in such a way that service evaluations inferred from rating distributions systematically vary by the location of the mode. The rationale underlying this phenomenon is that the mode (i.e., the most frequent rating which is represented by the tallest bar in a graphical display) attracts consumers’ attention because of its visual salience and is thus disproportionately weighted when they draw conclusions. Across a series of eight studies, the authors provide strong empirical evidence for the existence of the mode heuristic, shed light on this phenomenon at the process level, and demonstrate how consumers’ inferences based on the mode heuristic depend on the visual salience of the mode. Together, the findings of these studies contribute to a better understanding of how service customers process and interpret graphical illustrations of online rating distributions and provide companies with a new key figure that—aside from rating volume, average ratings, and rating dispersion—should be incorporated in the monitoring, analyzing, and evaluating of review data.
Vink, J., K. Koskela-Huotari, B. Tronvoll, B. Edvardsson and K. Wetter-Edman (2021): Service Ecosystem Design: Propositions, Process Model, and Future Research Agenda, Journal of Service Research, 24(2), pp.168-186
While service design has been highlighted as a promising approach for driving innovation, there are often struggles in realizing lasting change in practice. The issues with long-term implementation reveal a reductionist view of service design that ignores the institutional arrangements and other interdependencies that influence design efforts within multi-actor service systems. The purpose of this article is to build a systemic understanding of service design to inform actors’ efforts aimed at intentional, long-term change in service systems. To achieve this aim, we inform the conceptual building blocks of service design by applying service-dominant logic’s service ecosystems perspective. Through this process, we develop four core propositions and a multilevel process model of service ecosystem design. The conceptualization of service ecosystem design advances service design theory by illuminating previously taken for granted aspects; explaining how intentional, long-term change emerges; and expanding the scope of service design beyond projects. Furthermore, this research offers a foundation for future research on service design that involves extending the systemic conceptualization of service design, conducting more holistic empirical investigations, and developing practical methods and approaches for the embedded, collective processes of designing.
Azzari, C. N., L. Anderson, M. Mende, J. G. Jefferies, H. Downey, A. L. Ostrom and J. Spanjol (2021): Consumers on the Job: Contextualization Crafting in Expert Services, Journal of Service Research, 24(), pp.1
Tasked with a greater role in the coproduction of expert services, consumers often face an immense burden in coproducing service and well-being outcomes. While some prior research has explored customer work, we delineate unique aspects of expert services and articulate consumer efforts that transpire outside the dyadic service interaction. Through netnographic inquiry in a health care context, we find that coproduction efforts are job-like and require job crafting efforts. Upon this foundation, three major themes emerged: (1) consumers leverage their context expertise by adapting content expertise to their unique circumstances, (2) consumers develop and deploy strategies (hacks) through affordances in order to manage their coproduction jobs, and (3) consumers move through the expert service journey in a variety of ways that shift them toward or away from well-being outcomes. After assessing the transferability of our results by analyzing a second expert service context (financial services/debt management), we suggest implications for theory, practice, and future research.
Bieler, M., P. Maas, L. Fischer and N. Rietmann (2021): Enabling Cocreation With Transformative Interventions: An Interdisciplinary Conceptualization of Consumer Boosting, Journal of Service Research, 24(), pp.1
Service research emphasizes the relevance of consumers’ participation in the cocreation of transformative outcomes like health and well-being. However, in complex services, consumers’ limited operant resources and lacking resource integration efficiency hinder transformative value cocreation. Service research on mechanisms that facilitate well-being through efficient resource integration is sparse, but several disciplines elaborate cognitive interventions with that target. These interventions have been validated in various contexts. Nevertheless, concerns persist that they can hurt, rather than help, individual consumers. Overcoming such limitations requires an interdisciplinary effort. The present article outlines the new research area “transformative consumer interventions” (TCI) by integrating interventions theory, consumer psychology, and transformative service research in a health context. TCI provide theory-driven principles for the selection and design of interventions that facilitate operant resource integration in complex services. Additionally, we conceptualize consumer boosting, the first TCI-based intervention construct. Consumer boosts are efficient, context-specific, and personalized interventions that enhance individuals’ operant resources. Consumer boosting provides a pathway to transformative cocreation and alleviates the risk of unintended consequences and value co-destruction. This research illustrates that the transformative service domain stands to benefit substantially from getting involved in the discussion on consumer interventions and offers a unique perspective for further conceptual elaboration.
Boenigk, S., A. A. Kreimer, A. Becker, L. Alkire, R. P. Fisk and S. Kabadayi (2021): Transformative Service Initiatives: Enabling Access and Overcoming Barriers for People Experiencing Vulnerability, Journal of Service Research, 24(), pp.1
Transformative service initiatives (TSIs) refer to activities by organizations (public, private, nonprofit) or volunteers to serve people experiencing vulnerabilities, including long-term challenges (e.g., refugees, homeless people, undocumented immigrants, ex-convicts) and try to improve their well-being. To advance the concept of TSI, this study proposes a 3A (Awareness, Alignment, Access) Integration Process Framework that can facilitate empirical tests of whether participation in TSIs affects people’s access to critical services. The empirical evidence affirms a positive influence of TSI participation on two TSR outcomes (application and access to higher education), according to data from a longitudinal study of 2,068 refugees (Study 1) that relies on propensity score matching and regression analysis. Study 2 uses qualitative data from six focus groups and identifies 16 barriers to successful refugee integration; it also identifies four individual strategies to overcoming those integration barriers. From academic and public policy perspectives, the findings demonstrate that efforts to plan and implement TSIs should follow a stepwise process to achieve the intended transformative outcomes. These findings can help academic, public policy, and civil society actors design and implement TSIs in various contexts to benefit people experiencing vulnerability.
Epp, A. M. and C. C. Otnes (2021): High-Quality Qualitative Research: Getting Into Gear, Journal of Service Research, 24(2), pp.163-167
In this editorial, we leverage the metaphor of the road trip to help those authors submitting to the Journal of Service Research and other publications craft high-quality qualitative research (HQQR). We outline three criteria as hallmarks of HQQR: relevant research addresses important problems or gaps, rigorous research makes data collection and analysis transparent, and responsive research reflects the ability to adapt to concerns and critiques as the project unfolds. We unpack four essentials of the road trip that enable authors to deliver on the above criteria: vehicle (theory), route (research design), traveling companions (coauthors, participants), and safety kit (planning, tools). We explain how choices made by researchers not only can foster HQQR but can also fuel the journey to publication. Our “Road Trip Checklist” provides a quick reference to specific questions researchers should ask to address each essential element and offers article exemplars that masterfully respond to these questions. We hope this editorial encourages researchers to draw on qualitative techniques to explore service-related topics that would benefit from immersive fieldwork and that it inspires the necessary guidance and confidence to get on the road.
Fang, D., P. W. Fombelle and R. N. Bolton (2021): Member Retention and Donations in Nonprofit Service Organizations: The Balance Between Peer and Organizational Identification, Journal of Service Research, 24(2), pp.187-205
Prior research has established that it is valuable for members to have strong organizational identification with nonprofit service organizations. However, research has not examined whether and how members are influenced by other members of a nonprofit. This paper analyzes how peer identification influences member retention and donations using survey data and actual member behavior. It distinguishes identification with the organization from identification with peers. The theory-based econometric model shows that the effect of a member’s peer and organizational identification on the likelihood of he/she will remain a member depends on the member’s relationship stage. Organizational identification has a large effect on member retention in the earlier periods of membership. However, for members of eight years or more, the favorable effect of peer identification becomes larger. Results also show that peer identification has a negative impact on donations whereas organizational identification has a positive effect regardless of stage of the member-nonprofit relationship. This paper also introduces a new construct, peer identity overlap, which influences peer identification. The article discusses how nonprofit service organizations can foster support and affirmation among members, value alignment among members, peer identity overlap, and organizational identification, as well as manage different stages of the relationship.
Kalra, A., R. Agnihotri and E. Briggs (2021): The Role of Frontline Employees’ Competitive Intelligence and Intraorganizational Social Capital in Driving Customer Outcomes, Journal of Service Research, 24(2), pp.269-283
Grounded in social capital theory, this study explores the influence of intraorganizational social capital on frontline employees’ (FLEs) competitive intelligence activities and the subsequent effects of engaging in competitive intelligence on their information communication behavior and relational customer outcomes. We empirically test the hypothesized relationships using multisource, multi-industry data collected from business-to-business (B2B) FLEs and their customers. The results indicate that bridging social capital directly relates to FLEs’ competitive intelligence activities, while bonding social capital functions as a positive moderator of this relationship. Job autonomy also positively moderates the relationship between bridging social capital and competitive intelligence. Results further indicate that FLEs’ competitive intelligence directly and positively relates to customers’ perception of information communication, which positively influences customer loyalty and engagement behavior. These results indicate that the firms’ cultivation of social capital can improve the capability of their FLEs to provide information-based service to industrial customers.
Lechner, A. T. and F. Mathmann (2021): Bringing Service Interactions Into Focus: Prevention- Versus Promotion-Focused Customers’ Sensitivity to Employee Display Authenticity, Journal of Service Research, 24(2), pp.284-300
Despite growing managerial interest in frontline employee behavior, and in display authenticity specifically, customers’ heterogeneous reactions to authentic displays have received little scholarly attention. Drawing on emotion as social information theory, we investigate the role of motivational orientations (i.e., regulatory focus) in customer reactions to authentic displays. The findings show that inauthentic displays have stronger negative effects on service performance for prevention-focused than for promotion-focused customers. A dyadic field study details these effects in terms of tipping, and three experiments provide further evidence by experimentally manipulating authenticity and regulatory focus. The conditional effect of authenticity on service performance also is mediated by inferred deception. Specifically, prevention-focused customers interpret inauthentic emotion displays as more deceptive than promotion-focused customers do. Managers should prime customers’ promotion focus using marketing communications before the service delivery when inauthentic displays are likely as well as consider customers’ regulatory focus when designing authenticity training for employees.
Mimoun, L. and A. Gruen (2021): Customer Work Practices and the Productive Third Place, Journal of Service Research, 24(), pp.1
Third places—communal or socializing places such as coffee shops—are confronted with a rising customer segment: customers who use them for work. Prior research is divided on this trend: customer-workers are seen either as a source of added value or a major threat to third places. Relying on a multimethod, qualitative study, we investigate the strategic implications of the rise of customer-workers in third places. We extend prior research by considering customer-workers as a new and valuable segment, with its specific motivations and practices. Building on the co-constitution of practices and places, we show that the rise of the customer-worker segment has fostered market differentiation. We identify four types of third places (archetypal, status quo, compromise, and productive) depending on their targeting strategy and their servicescape adaptation. We delineate how customer-workers transform third places’ value proposition and bring challenges to each type. Specifically, we show that status quo third places are most prone to customer conflicts while compromise third places generate managerial struggles. In contrast, productive third places adapt their servicescape to become work accelerators and a source of professional identity for customer-workers. We provide recommendations for managers to overcome conflicts and benefit from this growing customer base.
Nazifi, A., K. Gelbrich, Y. Grégoire, S. Koch, D. El-Manstrly and J. Wirtz (2021): Proactive Handling of Flight Overbooking: How to Reduce Negative eWOM and the Costs of Bumping Customers, Journal of Service Research, 24(2), pp.206-225
This research examines the extent to which proactivity in handling flight overbooking reduces negative electronic word-of-mouth (NeWOM) and the required costs of compensation, thus increasing firm profitability. It answers recent calls to use a multimethod approach (i.e., we include archival data, qualitative interviews, seven experiments, and a Monte Carlo simulation for a total of 10 studies) and to adapt recovery to specific contexts (i.e., airlines) and heterogeneous customers (i.e., voluntary/involuntary bumping or offloading). The preliminary studies indicate that overbooking and offloading are pervasive and that a proactive approach is both feasible and desirable. The experiments show that, compared to the default reactive approach (informing passengers at the gate), a proactive approach (informing them before they leave for the airport) substantially reduces NeWOM and the sought compensation. Further, a very reactive approach (informing them in the plane) significantly increases NeWOM and the sought compensation, especially when offloading occurs involuntarily. We also unveil the mechanism explaining the effects of proactivity on NeWOM, through the serial mediation of justice and betrayal. Finally, the results of a Monte Carlo simulation show that offering reduced compensation through a proactive approach allows more aggressive overbooking, higher capacity utilization, and increased net revenue of up to 1.3%.
Pemer, F. (2021): Enacting Professional Service Work in Times of Digitalization and Potential Disruption, Journal of Service Research, 24(2), pp.249-268
Digitalization has the potential to disrupt many service industries. This is already evident in industries offering standardized business-to-consumer services. Even knowledge-intensive business-to-business (B2B) services have increasingly blended digital technologies. Yet, little is known about how this type of service and its associated service work has changed, as tasks are being increasingly performed by robots or through artificial intelligence. This study fills this void by exploring how frontline workers in two highly knowledge-intensive B2B service industries—auditing and public relations/communication (PR/C) consulting—enact their service work in response to digitalization. Building on an interview study with 50 professionals and taking an interdisciplinary stance we find—contrary to the findings in previous research—that auditing firms embrace digitalization to a larger extent than PR/C firms. Further, we find that the frontline workers’ enactment of their service work is influenced by the fit between technological innovations and the type of intelligence their services are built on, as well as their occupational identities and the service climate within the firms. We conclude the article by developing propositions and a conceptual model, and outline how service firms can support their frontline workers’ infusion of digital technologies in their service work.
Sandberg, B., L. Hurmerinta, H. M. Leino and M. Menzfeld (2021): Autonomy or Security? Core Value Trade-Offs and Spillovers in Servicescapes for Vulnerable Customers, Journal of Service Research, 24(), pp.1
This study deepens knowledge on the implementation of core values in servicescapes by analyzing how core value trade-offs and spillovers occur within servicescapes and how vulnerable stakeholders cope with them. We use an explorative approach and draw on rich data collected in two nursing homes. Our study demonstrates how the autonomy-security trade-offs originate in different dimensions of the servicescapes. Further analysis reveals how individual customers may conflict with the core values and core purposes of the respective servicescapes. We also contribute to the discussion on customer vulnerability by considering vulnerability in the extended customer entity and by identifying the active coping mechanisms of vulnerable customers. Practitioners can increase the quality of care by identifying and taking into account the core values of both vulnerable primary and secondary customers and by deliberately supporting their coping with core value trade-offs and spillovers.
van Jaarsveld, D. D., D. D. Walker, S. L. D. Restubog, D. Skarlicki, Y. Chen and P. H. Frické (2021): Unpacking the Relationship Between Customer (In)Justice and Employee Turnover Outcomes: Can Fair Supervisor Treatment Reduce Employees’ Emotional Turmoil?, Journal of Service Research, 24(2), pp.301-319
Service employees can experience considerable resource demands from customers and supervisors in their day-to-day work. Guided by the conservation of resources (COR) perspective and organizational justice research, we explored the relationship between interpersonal injustice (e.g., being treated with low dignity and respect) by customers and employee turnover (e.g., voluntary turnover, turnover intentions). Specifically, we proposed that customer interpersonal injustice relates positively to employee turnover outcomes through a process first involving employee experiences of negative emotions, and second, employee emotional exhaustion. We also examined whether supervisor interpersonal justice mitigates this process by providing emotional resources that buffer the demands of customer interpersonal injustice. We evaluated these predictions in a programmatic series of three complementary field studies involving retail employees (Study 1, N = 263), restaurant employees (Study 2, N = 206), and contact center employees (Study 3, N = 317). The results showed that (a) customer interpersonal injustice relates positively to employees’ negative emotions, (b) employee negative emotions are positively associated with emotional exhaustion, and (c) emotional exhaustion relates to higher employee turnover outcomes. Our results also show that the indirect effect of customer interpersonal injustice on employee turnover intentions (Study 2) and voluntary turnover (Study 3) is weaker when employees perceive more (vs. less) supervisor interpersonal justice. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Domínguez-Falcón, C., M. Fernández-Monroy, I. Galván-Sánchez and J. L. Ballesteros-Rodríguez (2021): Training as an internal marketing tool within the franchise system, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(3), pp.396-422
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the important role of training (specifically, training relevance and training transfer) in enhancing franchisor-franchisee relationship satisfaction, and its influence upon customer performance (e.g., customer satisfaction, quality service), all driven by an internal marketing (IM) culture. Design/methodology/approach An empirical study consisting of a questionnaire was conducted on a final sample of 157 individuals who are members of the franchise system. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the research hypotheses. Findings The results reveal that IM culture has a direct influence on training relevance; likewise, training relevance provides a positive and significant effect on training transfer, which does directly affect franchisor-franchisee relationship satisfaction and at least also impacts indirectly on customer performance. Practical implications In order to ensure the success of the franchise system and customer satisfaction, all franchise parties should take a proactive role in the configuration of the training programmes. This proactive role should be conformed based on an IM culture developed properly by the franchise to strengthen a successful long-term relationship. Originality/value This paper provides an innovative approach to strengthen the franchisor-franchisee relationship through training based on the IM culture. This exploratory study integrates different theoretical frameworks that, to our knowledge, have not been linked, such as IM culture and franchise literature, considering the franchisee as an internal customer who has an influence on external customer satisfaction, with training and training transfer as essential key factors.
Donthu, N., S. Kumar, C. Ranaweera, M. Sigala and R. Sureka (2021): Journal of Service Theory and Practice at age 30: past, present and future contributions to service research, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(3), pp.265-295
Purpose In 2020, the Journal of Service Theory and Practice (JSTP), previously titled Managing Service Quality, celebrates its 30th anniversary. This study provides a retrospective of the evolution and contribution of the journal to service research by identifying its major trends, research constituents, factors contributing to citations and thematic structure over its 29 active years (1991–2019). The paper concludes by providing directions and ideas for progressing service research Design/methodology/approach The study uses the Scopus database to extract JSTP’s bibliographic data. It employs bibliometric methods to study the trends of the journal, such as the citation structure and most-contributing authors, institutions and countries. Bibliographic coupling and keyword co-occurrence analyses are used to study the intellectual structure of the journal. Regression analysis discloses the factors influencing citations of JSTP articles. Factors explaining the citation count of JSTP articles include article age, number of author keywords, article length, title length and number of references. Findings JSTP’s influence has grown significantly in the scientific community, which is evidenced by findings relating to the citation counts, the thematic scope/variety and authorship features of the JSTP papers published during the last 30 years. JSTP attracts publications from around the globe, but most contributions come from the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Although JSTP has continuously evolved with new and varied themes, a bibliographic coupling analysis clustered JSTP articles into five major clusters. Research limitations/implications The limitations of the Scopus database may impact the study’s results. Originality/value This study is the first to provide a comprehensive review of JSTP since its launch. It is useful to the editorial board and other JSTP stakeholders as well as service scholars alike.
Gong, T. and C.-Y. Wang (2021): The effects of a psychological brand contract breach on customers’ dysfunctional behavior toward a brand, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(4), pp.607-637
Purpose This paper introduces the concept of dysfunctional customer behavior toward a brand and argues that when customers perceive that a brand has failed to fulfill its promises, a psychological brand contract breach occurs, which in turn leads to a psychological brand contract violation, which evokes dysfunctional customer behavior toward the brand. In addition, this study investigates whether the impact of a breach of this contract is dependent on brand relationship quality, brand apology and restitution. Design/methodology/approach Study 1 conducted the online survey and 224 respondents were used for data analysis and the moderating role of brand relationship quality was examined. Study 2 conducted an experiment with 201 participants to test the moderating role of brand apology and restitution. Findings This study found the moderating role of brand relationship quality, brand apology and brand restitution on the relationship between a psychological brand contract breach and dysfunctional customer behavior toward a brand (i.e. brand-negative word-of-mouth, brand retaliation and brand boycott), which is mediated by psychological brand contract violation. Originality/value This study contributes to the theoretical understanding of dysfunctional customer behavior toward a brand by integrating the literature on brand management with the organizational literature on psychological contracts between organizations and their employees. Furthermore, this study sheds light on the effectiveness of reparative actions by the firm after occurrence of the psychological brand contract breach.
Ho, B. Q. and K. Shirahada (2021): Actor transformation in service: a process model for vulnerable consumers, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(4), pp.534-562
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a process model for the role transformation of vulnerable consumers through support services. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on four years of participant observation at a community-based support service and in-depth interviews with the consumers. Visual ethnography was used to document the process of the consumers’ role transformation through service exchanges. Findings The main outcome of this study is a consumer transformation model, describing consumers’ role transformation processes, from recipients to generic actors. The model demonstrates that vulnerable consumers will transform from recipients to quasi-actors before becoming generic actors. Social implications Vulnerable consumers’ participation in value cocreation can be promoted by providing social support according to their dynamic roles. By enabling consumers to participate in value cocreation, social support provision can become sustainable and inclusive, especially in rural areas affected by aging and depopulation. Transforming recipients into generic actors should be a critical aim of service provision in the global challenge of aging societies. Originality/value Beyond identifying service factors, the research findings describe the mechanism of consumers’ role transformation process as a service mechanics study. Furthermore, this study contributes to transformative service research by applying social exchange theory and broadening service-dominant logic by describing the process of consumer growth for individual and community well-being.
Kou, Y., Z. Shuai and S. Powpaka (2021): The name effect in customization service: the role of psychological ownership and self-threat, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(4), pp.493-511
Purpose This study investigated the effect of adding a customer’s name onto a standard product on the customer’s product attitude from the perspective of the name-letter effect and psychological ownership theory. Design/methodology/approach A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted to test the name effect in customization services. The main effects, mediation effects and moderation effects were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and PROCESS 2.16.3. Findings Adding customers’ personal names onto a standard product positively affected their attitude toward the product, and these effects were mediated by psychological ownership. Furthermore, customers’ responses were moderated by self-threat, whereby threatening customers’ self-concept enhanced their attitude toward the product that had their name on it. Originality/value This study found a positive name effect that is applicable to customization services. It also identified mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this effect. Therefore this study extends previous studies on customization services that have solely focusing on complex product personalization by focusing on a service that requires less effort and a more basic customization service. This study also extends previous findings about name-letter effects by focusing on the associations between an individual and an object that are induced by shared name letters and by studying how directly adding a personal name onto an object can influence these associations.
Leisen Pollack, B. (2021): Green service attributes and amplifiers of the warm emotions evoked by them, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(4), pp.512-533
Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide insights into mechanism by which environmentally friendly initiatives positively affect a service firm’s revenue stream. First, it explores attributes consumers associate with green services. Second, it affirms the mediating role of warm emotions in connecting green services to satisfaction and customer loyalty. Third, it investigates a set of amplifiers of warm emotions. These are the green tendencies of the consumer and perceived motives for adopting environmentally friendly practices. Design/methodology/approach This research involved two studies. A critical incident study was used to tap into the consumer’s perspective on green services. A total of 262 attributes of green services were categorized into overarching themes. A quantitative study addressed the mediating relationships and amplifiers of warm emotions. Pooled across three services, a total of 846 observations were analyzed. Findings The findings reveal that a consumer views a service as environmentally friendly if it exhibits green attributes in either the core service, service delivery process, service environment or peripheral service activities. The results of Study II affirm that warm emotions mediate the relationship between perceptions of the environmental friendliness of a service and customer satisfaction as well as customer loyalty. The study findings suggest that positive emotions are further strengthened by the level of greenness of the consumer and by a firm’s money saving motives as well as environmental preservation motives the consumer attributes to the adoption of green practices. Originality/value This study advances the authors’ understanding of what attributes consumers associate with service greenness. This research expands on the service greenness and positive emotions connection by including an initial set of amplifiers of positive emotions to include the greenness of the consumer and motives for adopting green practices.
Potdar, B., T. Garry, J. Gnoth and J. Guthrie (2021): An investigation into the antecedents of frontline service employee guardianship behaviours, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(3), pp.450-467
Purpose This study aims to provide empirically generated insights into the drivers of guardianship behaviour among frontline service employees (FLEs) within retail settings. Design/methodology/approach The research framework comprises a quantitative survey of 507 frontline service employees at national supermarkets within New Zealand. Findings The findings of the survey suggest that service employee perceptions of internal corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities, their level of psychological ownership towards the supermarket and personal moral beliefs, shape their guardianship behaviours and, consequentially, the prevention of in-store deviant behaviours by customers such as shoplifting. Originality/value The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, it offers both a conceptual foundation and an empirical-based evaluation of the antecedents and role of guardianship behaviour among frontline service employees. Second, the conceptual model derived from this research may aid practitioners in developing strategies that engender guardianship behaviours in their employees within service contexts.
Sahhar, Y., R. Loohuis and J. Henseler (2021): Towards a circumplex typology of customer service experience management practices: a dyadic perspective, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(3), pp.366-395
Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify the practices used by service providers to manage the customer service experience (CSE) across multiple phases of the customer journey in a business-to-business (B2B) setting. Design/methodology/approach This study comprises an ethnography that investigates in real time, from a dyadic perspective, and the CSE management practices at two service providers operating in knowledge-intensive service industries over a period of eight months. Analytically, the study concentrates on critical events that occurred in phases of the customer journey that in some way alter CSE, thus making it necessary for service providers to act to keep their customers satisfied. Findings The study uncovers four types of service provider practices that vary based on the mode of organization (ad hoc or regular) and the mode of engagement (reactive or proactive) and based on whether they restore or bolster CSE, including the recurrence of these practices in the customer journey. These practices are conveniently presented in a circumplex typology of CSE management across five phases in the customer journey. Research limitations/implications This paper advances the research in CSE management throughout the customer journey in the B2B context by showing that CSE management is dynamic, recurrent and multifaceted in the sense that it requires different modes of organization and engagement, notably during interaction with customers, in different phases of the customer journey. Practical implications The circumplex typology acts as a tool for service providers, helping them to redesign their CSE management practices in ongoing service and dialogical processes to keep their customers more engaged and satisfied. Originality/value This paper is the first to infuse a dyadic stance into the ongoing discussion of CSE management practices in B2B, in which studies to date have deployed only provider or customer perspectives. In proposing a microlevel view, the study identifies service providers’ CSE management practices in multiple customer journey phases, especially when the situation becomes critical.
Tregua, M., D. Brozovic and A. D’Auria (2021): 15 years of service-dominant logic: analyzing citation practices of Vargo and Lusch (2004), Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(4), pp.563-606
Purpose The purpose of this article was to provide an outline of the citation practices of “Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing” by Vargo and Lusch (2004) to identify and discuss the most prominent research topics in which citations were used and to suggest future research based on the results of the analysis. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a comprehensive framework of citation practices based on iterations of previous literature to analyze the relevant literature, which they identified by accessing, systematically and rigorously, every available contribution matching a set of criteria. The authors then categorized these contributions and highlighted the main topics of research interest in each category. Findings The findings identify some of the factors in the continuous development of SDL, the way this new marketing logic permeated the scientific debate, the infusion of Vargo and Lusch (2004) into several contributions framed in the new logic or justified through it, and a general perception of a default reference. Additionally, the findings highlight the main topics of research interest in each category. Research limitations/implications The analysis enabled the detection of the original paper’s influence through advances in service studies, pollination into other fields of research and continuous scientific debate. The authors have highlighted several avenues for research and proposed future research directions. Originality/value This research analyzed the effects of the spread of the SDL cornerstone article and emphasized the advantage of using an in-depth approach to the analysis of studies through a framework applied to more than 4,600 studies.
Volkers, M. (2021): “Can I go or should I stay?” A theoretical framework of social lock-in during unsatisfactory service encounters, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(4), pp.638-663
Purpose This article demonstrates that the type of service setting and the first interaction with an employee influences the customers’ intention to stay or leave during an unsatisfactory service encounter, and that these effects are mediated by social lock-in, which describes the perception of a customer that exiting a service encounter early violates social norms. Design/methodology/approach The hypotheses are tested with two scenario-based experiments using a collective (theater) and high-contact service (restaurant) (N = 1143; 1485). Findings The results suggest that social lock-in and the intention to stay are higher in a closed as opposed to an open setting and that the type of setting is, in fact, more important for the decision to stay than sunk costs. Moreover, customers are more likely to stay after an interaction with an employee. Research limitations/implications This article contributes to the research aimed at explaining customers’ decisions to stay or leave during an unsatisfactory service encounter. In doing so, the study highlights the constraining power of social norms in service encounters, which contributes to the research on the relationship between the social context and customers’ behavior. Practical implications This study suggests that service providers can manage servicescape cues and employee behavior to influence customers’ social lock-in perceptions and their decision to stay on or to leave early. Originality/value This is the first study to provide quantitative evidence for social lock-in and its determinants in service encounters.
Walsh, J. N. and J. O’Brien (2021): The role of information systems and knowledge codification for service provision strategies, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(3), pp.318-350
Purpose While service scholars see modularisation as balancing the efficiency of standardisation with the value added through customisation the relationships between these concepts are under-theorised. In addition, although information and communication technologies can facilitate all three service strategies, the degree to which they codify service knowledge is not explicitly considered in the extant literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a model that examines service strategy trajectories by specifically considering the ICTs used and the degree of knowledge codification employed. Design/methodology/approach This study draws on three qualitative case studies of service departments of firms involved in cardiovascular applications, orthopaedic, spinal and neuroscience product development and information technology support. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews, document analysis and non-participant observation. Findings Findings show that ICTs were increasingly used to codify both standardised and customised services, though in different ways. For standardised services ICTs codified the service process, making them even more rigid. Due to the dynamic nature of customised services, drawing on experts’ tacit knowledge, ICTs codified the possessors of knowledge rather than the service process they undertook. This study also identified a duality between the tacit development of customised services and modular service codification. Research limitations/implications The model is validated using case studies from three companies in the medical and information technology sectors limiting its generalisability. Practical implications The importance of considering the degree of tacitness or explicitness of service knowledge is important for service codification. The paper provides managers with empirical examples of how ICTs are used to support all three strategies, allows them to identify their current position and indicates possible future trajectories. Originality/value The papers main contribution is the development of a model that integrates the literature on service strategies with knowledge management strategies to classify service standardisation, customisation and modularisation in terms of both service orientation and degree of ICT codification.
Wexler, M. N. and J. Oberlander (2021): Robo-advisors (RAs): the programmed self-service market for professional advice, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(3), pp.351-365
Purpose This conceptual paper draws together an interdisciplinary approach to robo-advisors (RAs) as an example of an early and successful example of automated, programmed professional services. Design/methodology/approach Little is known about the forces driving this change in the delivery of professional service. This work explores the drivers of RAs, the degree of disruption incurred by the introduction of RAs, and how, as RAs advance, trust in algorithmic authority aids in legitimating RAs as smart information. Findings From the firms’ perspective, the drivers include rebranding occasioned by the financial crisis (2008), the widening of the client base and the “on-trend” nature of algorithmic authority guided by artificial intelligence (AI) embedded in RAs. This examination of the drivers of RAs indicates that professional service automation is aligned with information society trends and is likely to expand. Practical implications Examining RAs as an indicator of the future introduction of programmed professional services suggests that success increases when the algorithmic authority in the programmed serves are minimally disruptive, trustworthy and expand the client base while keeping the knowledge domain of the profession under control of the industry. Originality/value Treating RAs as an early instance of successfully embedding knowledge in AI and algorithmically based platforms adds to the early stages of theory and practice in the monetization and automation of professional knowledge-based services.
Zhan, X., W. Luo, H. Ding, Y. Zhu and Y. Guo (2021): Are employees’ emotional labor strategies triggering or reducing customer incivility: a sociometer theory perspective, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(3), pp.296-317
Purpose Prior studies have mainly attributed customer incivility to dispositional characteristics, whereas little attention has been paid to exploring service employees’ role in triggering or reducing customer incivility. The purpose of the present study is to propose and test a model in which service employees’ emotional labor strategies affect customer incivility via influencing customers’ self-esteem threat, as well as examine the moderating role of customer’s perception of service climate. Design/methodology/approach Based on a matched sample consisting of 317 employee-customer dyads in China, multiple regression analysis and indirect effect tests were employed to test our model. Findings The study shows that employee surface acting is positively related to customer incivility, whereas deep acting is negatively associated with customer incivility. Moreover, customer self-esteem threat mediates the relationship between both types of emotional labor and customer incivility. Customer perception of service climate moderates the relationship between deep acting and customer self-esteem threat. Originality/value The current research broadens the antecedents of customer incivility from the employee perspective and sheds more light on the role of customer self-esteem in the interactions between employees and customers. It also demonstrates a complementary relationship between service climate and individual employees’ emotional labor strategies, thereby expanding the existing understanding of the management of employees’ emotional labor.
Zighan, S., Z. Alkalha, D. Bamford, I. Reid and Z. b. M. F. Al-Zu’bi (2021): Servitisation through structural adaptation, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 31(3), pp.468-490
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural changes needed for project-based organisations (PBOs) to synthesise their project operations and services following the servitisation strategy. It addresses the question of how PBOs should change their organisational structure fitting with service provision strategy. Design/methodology/approach This study followed an exploratory research method using a single in-depth case with evidence collected from 51 project managers from five different industry sectors: construction, oil and gas, IT, logistics and health care Findings Capitalising on organisational design theory, it has been found that successfully extending PBOs’ outcomes into a system of both project output and extra services requires an adjustment of organisational structure that creates greater value for both companies and customers. This required adjustment has been divided into five main categories: (1) collaboration cross-project and customers; (2) flexible workflow, (3) decentralised decision-making, (4) wide span of control and (5) project governance. However, the findings indicate that success can only be ensured by particular mutually coordinated organisational designs with a suitable balance of products and services Practical implications This study presents vital indicators to PBOs practitioners when deploying servitisation within their operational strategy by adjusting the organisation’s design. Social implications Servitisation could add both economic and social values for a diverse set of project stakeholders. However, the sustainability performance of servitisation in servitised project-based organisations is an outcome of reducing the discrepancy between project operation and service provision activities. Originality/value This study contributes to the body of knowledge and proposes a structural alteration process in PBOs to help align project operations and service provision activities. It explains how project-based organisations reconfigure their resources to provide services.
Boninsegni, M. F., O. Furrer and A. S. Mattila (2021): Dimensionality of frontline employee friendliness in service encounters, Journal of Service Management, 32(3), pp.346-382
Purpose: This article explores four dimensions of frontline employee (FLE) friendliness (humorous, informal, conversational, and approachable) to propose a relevant measurement instrument of the influence of FLE friendliness on relationship quality and perceived value, as well as its indirect influence on repatronage intentions. Recent studies suggest FLE friendliness, defined as a tendency to convey an affective customer–employee social interaction, is a critical determinant of relationship marketing, but few scholars agree on its dimensionality. This study seeks a deeper understanding of FLE friendliness by investigating its different dimensions in various service contexts. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed-method design, including both qualitative and quantitative research, offers a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of FLE friendliness. Findings: The content analysis suggests FLE friendliness is multidimensional and composed of humorous, informal, conversational, and approachable behaviors. The results of a quantitative survey, conducted across four service contexts, validate this four-factor model. A second quantitative survey across two service contexts reveals the weights and relative importance of the dimensions, and then a third quantitative survey across three service contexts confirms that FLE friendliness is a significant driver of relationship quality, perceived value, and repatronage intentions (indirectly). Originality/value: This study contributes to relationship marketing literature by strengthening the conceptual foundations of FLE friendliness, clarifying the dimensionality of the construct, developing a comprehensive measurement instrument, and extending previous research on the customer–employee interactions.
Chen, T., S. Dodds, J. Finsterwalder, L. Witell, L. Cheung, M. Falter, T. Garry, H. Snyder and J. R. McColl-Kennedy (2021): Dynamics of wellbeing co-creation: a psychological ownership perspective, Journal of Service Management, 32(3), pp.383-406
Purpose: People are responsible for their wellbeing, yet whether they take ownership of their own or even others’ wellbeing might vary from actor to actor. Such psychological ownership (PO) influences the dynamics of how wellbeing is co-created, particularly amongst actors, and ultimately determines actors’ subjective wellbeing. The paper’s research objective pertains to explicating the concept of the co-creation of wellbeing and conceptualizing the dynamics inherent to the co-creation of wellbeing with consideration of the influences of all involved actors from a PO perspective. Design/methodology/approach: To provide a new conceptualization and framework for the dynamics of wellbeing co-creation, this research synthesizes wellbeing, PO and value co-creation literature. Four healthcare cases serve to illustrate the effects of engaged actors’ PO on the co-creation of wellbeing. Findings: The derived conceptual framework of dynamic co-creation of wellbeing suggests four main propositions: (1) the focal actor’s wellbeing state is the intangible target of the focal actor’s and other engaged actors’ PO, transformed throughout the process of wellbeing co-creation, (2) PO over the focal actor’s wellbeing state is subject to the three interrelated routes of exercising control, investing in the target, and intimately knowing the target, which determine the instigation of wellbeing co-creation, (3) the level of PO over the focal actor’s wellbeing state can vary, influence and be influenced by the extent of wellbeing co-creation, (4) the co-creation of wellbeing, evoked by PO, is founded on resource integration, which influences the resources–challenges equilibrium of focal actor and of all other engaged actors, affecting individual subjective wellbeing. Originality/value: This article provides a novel conceptual framework that can shed new light on the co-creation of wellbeing in service research. Through the introduction of PO the transformation of lives and wellbeing can be better understood.
De Pourcq, K., K. Verleye, B. Larivière, J. Trybou and P. Gemmel (2021): Implications of customer participation in outsourcing non-core services to third parties, Journal of Service Management, 32(3), pp.438-458
Purpose: Focal service providers increasingly involve customers in the decision-making about outsourcing parts of the service delivery process to third parties. The present study investigates how customers’ outsourcing decisions affect the formation of the waiting experience with the focal service provider, by which the objective waiting time, environmental quality and interactional quality act as focal drivers. Design/methodology/approach: To test our hypotheses in the context of cancer care, we gathered process data and experience data by means of a patient observation template (n = 640) and a patient survey (n = 487). The combined data (n = 377) were analyzed using Bayesian models. Findings: This study shows that opting for a service triad (i.e. outsourcing non-core services to a third party) deduces customers’ attention away from the objective waiting time with the focal service provider but not from the environmental and interactional quality offered by the focal service provider. When the type of service triad coordination is considered, we observe similar effects for a focal service provider-coordinated service triad while in a customer-coordinated service triad the interactional quality is the sole experience driver of waiting experiences that remains significant. Originality/value: By investigating the implications of customer participation in the decision-making about outsourcing parts of the service delivery process to third parties, this research contributes to the service design, service triad and service operations literature. Specifically, this study shows that customer outsourcing decisions impact waiting experience formation with the focal service provider.
Feng, C., R. Ma and L. Jiang (2021): The impact of service innovation on firm performance: a meta-analysis, Journal of Service Management, 32(3), pp.289-314
Purpose: With the rise of service economy, many companies are attempting to gain a competitive advantage through service innovation. However, the existing research has not drawn consistent conclusions about the relationship between service innovation and firm performance. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative review on the service innovation-performance relationship based on research findings reported in the extant literature. Design/methodology/approach: Studies from 46 peer-reviewed articles were sampled and analyzed. A meta-analytic approach was adopted to conduct a quantitative review on the relationship between service innovation and firm performance, and the effects of any potential moderators were further explored. Findings: The results found that service innovation has a significant positive impact on firm performance. Additionally, the relationship between service innovation and firm performance is influenced by measurement moderators (economic region and performance measurement), and contextual moderators (firm type, innovation type, customer factors and attitudes toward risk). Originality/value: The meta-analysis has been used to explore the relationship between service innovation and firm performance, and the findings have contributed to the literature on service innovation, as well as providing future research directions.
Ponsignon, F., J. S. Smith and A. Smart (2021): Development and validation of a measurement scale for the experience capability construct, Journal of Service Management, 32(3), pp.315-345
Purpose: This study aims to develop and empirically validate the concept of experience capability, which represents an organisation’s ability to be adept at managing the customer experience. Organisations that build an experience capability develop an expertise in deploying a set of resources and routines to understand, evaluate and improve how they interact with customers across all the points of contact. Design/methodology/approach: A rigorous process was employed to identify, operationally define, evaluate and validate six dimensions reflecting experience capability. The dimensions were developed and validated using relevant literature, expert interviews, item-sorting techniques, a pilot survey and two surveys, providing a degree of certainty that the intellectual insights are generalisable. Findings: The experience capability concept is identified as comprising six dimensions that are informed by 27 measurement items. The six dimensions are employee training, employee empowerment, employee evaluation, experience performance management, cross-functional work and channel integration. The findings provide evidence suggesting that the multi-item measurement scale exhibits appropriate psychometric properties. Practical implications: The empirically validated 27-item measurement scale provides practitioners with an approach to evaluate and improve their organisation’s experience capability. It permits both longitudinal comparisons of individual organisations and competitive benchmarking both within and across industry sectors. The approach alerts managers to the critical operational areas that should be measured and provides a structured method to pursue competitive advantage through customer experience capability. Originality/value: Developing valid and reliable measurement scales is an essential first step in effective theory-building. The paper proposes a theoretical foundation for the experience capability construct and validates a corresponding measurement scale. The scale was developed carefully to achieve the specificity required to undertake meaningful practitioner-centric assessment while maintaining relevance across sectorial contexts. The results complement existing customer-centric experience research by providing distinct intellectual insights from a practitioner perspective. The developed scale permits future intellectual investigation through capability comparisons both within and between companies in different industries/sectors.
Ramirez Hernandez, T. and M. E. Kreye (2021): Uncertainty profiles in engineering-service development: exploring supplier co-creation, Journal of Service Management, 32(3), pp.407-437
Purpose: Engineering service (ES) development, particularly with supplier co-creation, is nontrivial, and the literature has acknowledged the high relevance of uncertainty in this context. This study aims to investigate the relationship between different supplier co-creation modes (operationally independent [OI] and operationally dependent [OD]) and uncertainty criticality arising during ES development. Design/methodology/approach: This study develops a conceptual framework of five uncertainty types by synthesizing the relevant literature from service management and new product development. This framework guided the empirical work of two in-depth case studies, describing uncertainty criticality in OI and OD supplier co-creation. Findings: The findings show that environmental and organizational uncertainty were generally of high criticality for ES development independently of the supplier co-creation mode. Moreover, uncertainty criticality varied between the two cases, with higher criticality of technical and relational uncertainty as well as less resource uncertainty experienced by the focal organization in the OD case. This suggests that supplier co-creation constitutes an uncertainty reallocation. Research limitations/implications: Further research is needed to test the generalizability of the qualitative results through quantitative studies. Originality/value: This research contributes to the service management literature by showing the varying uncertainty profiles manufacturing organizations face when engaging in different supplier co-creation modes. Furthermore, this research provides novel insights on ES development to the broader discussion on ES management.
Chichkanov, N., I. Miles and V. Belousova (2021): Drivers for innovation in KIBS: evidence from Russia, Service Industries Journal, 41(44385), pp.489-511
Knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) significantly contribute to the economic growth and competitive advantage of emerging markets, including Silk Road countries. KIBS are not only intermediaries that transfer knowledge through the economy but are also innovators themselves. This paper aims to explore how major innovation drivers influence the implementation of innovation in KIBS. Using a sample of 519 KIBS enterprises from Russia, the results show that human capital increases the implementation of technological innovation, while the link between standardisation and technological innovations is non-linear (an inverted U-shaped). In addition, the multiregional branch network promotes the implementation of all types of innovation, while advertising investments enhance the implementation of technological and marketing ones. These results help to provide some practical suggestions for both innovation managers and policy-makers.
Fayzullaev, K., S. H. Cassel and D. Brandt (2021): Destination image in Uzbekistan – heritage of the Silk Road and nature experience as the core of an evolving Post Soviet identity, Service Industries Journal, 41(44385), pp.446-461
The purpose of this research is to analyze the destination image of Uzbekistan presented by the DMO and the destinations images emerging from user generated content in social media posts. In this study, promotional images and user-generated images on the platform Instagram were examined by using content-semiotic analysis. The main findings show that the destination image of Uzbekistan is dominated by heritage and reference to ancient cultural traditions of the region. However, the image represented through user generated content on Instagram is more diverse and to a larger extent depict the destination through natural heritage and experiences in the natural landscape. Furthermore, Uzbekistan is concurrently trying to create a post-Soviet identity through a focus on its history prior to the Soviet past, with focus on heritage of the Great Silk Road which highlight that destination image construction is related to geo-political processes in society which includes contestations of national identity.
Himaz, R. (2021): Challenges associated with the BRI: a review of recent economics literature, Service Industries Journal, 41(44385), pp.512-526
Economic trade theory suggests that the Belt Road Initiative (BRI) can lead to more trade and increases in welfare. However, this can also lead to various challenges. In this paper, we use recent literature in economics to identify three such challenges. The first is that there is increasing evidence of malinvestment in previous Chinese infrastructure investments, rising corporate debt and corruption. If the BRI worsens this phenomena, the consequent financial and economic crisis in China is likely to have serious contagion effects with global ramifications. Second, trade brings about winners and losers within a country and unless there is adequate redistribution of the gains within an economy it can lead to increased inequality, poverty and structural unemployment. Finally, there are negative consequences to the environment that trade expansion may bring about unless effective legal, political and economic institutions are in place addressing the issue.
Ostrovskiy, A., V. Garkavenko and L. Rybina (2021): Influence of socio-psychological factors on consumers purchasing behavior in Kazakhstan, Service Industries Journal, 41(44385), pp.527-552
The study deals with the socio-psychological factors influencing the purchasing behavior of Kazakhstani consumers related to domestic services, products and services and foreign products from the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). The scope of the study covered three markets, namely, Kazakhstan, Russia and Belorussia, and the main research objectives were both to identify the level of receptivity of Kazakhstani consumers to domestic and foreign products and services and to measure the impact of this receptivity on their purchasing preferences. The results of the study showed that Kazakhstani consumers showed a relatively high level of ethnocentrism, animosity and conservatism toward products and services manufactured in Russia and Belorussia. The image of the country of origin of products and services manufactured in Russia and Belorussia in general created positive associations among Kazakhstani customers about products and services from these countries.
Pechlaner, H., H. Thees, W. Manske-Wang and A. Scuttari (2021): Local service industry and tourism development through the global trade and infrastructure project of the New Silk Road – the example of Georgia, Service Industries Journal, 41(44385), pp.553-579
The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) of the Republic of China is a global infrastructure project with high trade ambitions, but uncertain regional outcomes. This exploratory analysis investigates the drivers and the processes enabling positive regional effects of the BRI in terms of local service industry development. Under the interpretation of the BRI as a global transport system, we identify and explore three levels of analysis: the global scale of the BRI, the regional scale of its corridors and the local scale of transit regions. Along the Trans-Caspian corridor, Georgia is analyzed as a unique example of transit region aiming deliberately to develop its tertiary sector around the BRI infrastructure. To assess the attitude of stakeholders towards the BRI and its impacts on local service development, a qualitative research strategy is applied. Nineteen semi-structured interviews are processed using the GABEK method. Results reveal uncertain positions towards the BRI initiative. However, a need for a national strategy and a transnational governance system clearly stands out to enforce transit countries and counterbalance the dependency on China’s foreign investments. The intervention of national governments is deemed as crucial also to facilitate knowledge transfer, business opportunities and to increase bottom-up participation of local inhabitants.
Williams, C. C. and A. Kayaoglu (2021): Revisiting the undeclared service economy as a dual labour market: lessons from a 2019 Eurobarometer survey, Service Industries Journal, 41(), pp.1-22
The aim of this paper is to transcend the long-standing depiction that workers universally participate in the undeclared service economy out of necessity due to their exclusion from the formal labour market, by proposing and evaluating the existence of a dual undeclared labour market in the service sector composed of an ‘upper-tier’ of voluntary exit-driven and ‘lower-tier’ of exclusion-driven undeclared service sector workers. Reporting a 2019 Eurobarometer survey conducted in 28 European countries, a dual labour market in the undeclared service economy is validated. Three-quarters of undeclared service workers report either purely exit- or exclusion driven rationales. For every lower tier undeclared service worker, 6.7 are in the upper tier, with those in the voluntary exit-driven upper tier more likely to be older, self-employed, having spent time in full-time education, and to be living in Western Europe and Nordic countries. The theoretical and policy implications are then discussed. (English)
Xu, X. a., L. Wang, Z. Song and J. Song (2021): Brand equity for self-driving route along the Silk Road, Service Industries Journal, 41(44385), pp.462-488
This study proposes a new model of brand equity for self-driving route along the Silk Road, in which brand-self congruity, brand awareness, and perceived quality mediate the relationship between brand experience value and brand loyalty. Data were collected in four cities in China via an online survey, and a total of 220 parent respondents with 5000 bootstraps were analyzed using the partial least squares structural equation modeling technique. The empirical findings indicate that 18 out of 20 hypotheses received empirical support in this study. This study makes a significant theoretical contribution to brand equity literature by introducing brand experience value and brand-self congruity into brand equity model. Furthermore, this study has a number of implications for self-driving route brand management practices. (English)
Yu, Z., H. Zeng and L. Hao (2021): The easier you get it, the less you cherish it? Research on the influence of coupon issuing methods on consumers from the perspective of psychological ownership, Service Industries Journal, 41(), pp.1-27
Based on the perspective of psychological ownership, this research explores how to issue coupons makes consumers value and use the coupons through four studies. Study 1 and study 2 show that participatory promotions lead to higher psychological ownership, expected regret and consumer willingness to use coupons than general promotions. Study 3 shows that, among participatory promotions, non-anonymous (vs. anonymous) participatory promotions are associated with more willingness to use coupons due to the mediation path effect of psychological ownership. Meanwhile, studies 1–3 show that, when coupons are scarce, the method of issuing coupons based on consumers’ willingness to use them has no effect. This may be because the scarcity of the coupons increases their value, and thus the intention to use them is unaffected by the method of issuance. Finally, we conduct study 4 to measure real behaviors to provide ecological validity. The results show that the actual number of coupons used decreases from high to low in the order of non-anonymous participatory promotions, anonymous participatory promotions and general promotions, which is consistent with our conclusions of studies 1-3. Our conclusions provide theoretical and managerial implications in the context of the increasing popularity of mobile internet and intelligent terminals. (English)
Gürlek, M. and M. A. Koseoglu (2021): Green innovation research in the field of hospitality and tourism: the construct, antecedents, consequences, and future outlook, Service Industries Journal, 41(), pp.1-33
Firms in the field of hospitality and tourism (H&T) have focused on the green innovation (GI) concept to handle environmental problems to generate revenue strategies and build brand awareness for stakeholders. This has created an important accumulation of knowledge in the literature. However, in the literature, there is no study investigating what the progress on GI literature is to help researchers in the theory development and practitioners to provide examples for their strategic decisions. Hence, This study investigates the progress in green innovation (GI) research in the field of hospitality and tourism (H&T). For this purpose, 74 studies published in 32 different journals were examined. Using content analysis, this paper examined three issues regarding green innovation research – the development levels and current trends in green innovation research; drivers and consequences, mediators and moderators of such research and agenda for future research. (English)
Blengini, I. and P. Das (2021): Why a New Name? The Role of Asset Characteristics and Broad Market Trends in Predicting Brand Affiliation Change in Hotels, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(2), pp.173-197
Brand affiliation is a critical choice in the hotel business. The decision to change brand (i.e., “rebranding”) may be determined by asset-level private information as well as publicly known information related to the property. In this article, we focus on nonprivate information, such as property features as well as market and industry performance indicators. Using the semiparametric and parametric hazard models, we show that variables such as hotels’ past record of affiliation changes, age, class, type, and location help predict the likelihood of rebranding. This analysis should increase the ability of industry practitioners to define rebranding risk and to use it as a competitive advantage.
Cheng, M. and C. K. Anderson (2021): Search Engine Consumer Journeys: Exploring and Segmenting Click-Through Behaviors, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(2), pp.198-214
The consumer online search journey is viewed as one of the key determinants toward consumer purchase decisions. Using a unique disaggregated query-level data set collected from a leading Chinese search engine, we employ a latent-class, two-stage logistic regression model and identify the existence of three distinct consumer segments in the hospitality industry. Each group represents a unique stage of the consumer experience along a typical search journey, leading to a set of click-through behaviors. The consumer search and click-through insights garnered from this study provide hotel marketers with deeper understandings and actionable guidelines to the development of their search advertising campaign and (re)targeting strategies. The segmentation model and the empirical insights also demonstrate the possibility that a segment-specific ad assortment approach could improve advertising efficiency, enrich consumer’s search experience, and eventually create a win-win situation that benefit all entities involved in the hospitality-related, search advertising domain.
Gong, T., P. Sun and M. J. Kang (2021): Customer-Oriented Constructive Deviance as a Reaction to Organizational Injustice Toward Customers, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(), pp.1
To date, research on the deontic model and third-party reactions to injustice has focused primarily on individuals’ tendency to punish the transgressor. In this study, we seek to extend the extant research by arguing that punishment may not be the only deontic reaction and that third-party observers of injustice should engage in activities that help the victim. More specifically, we explore employee’s customer-oriented constructive deviance as a reaction to organizational injustice toward customers. We also investigate how this deviance influences customer satisfaction. In addition, we explore service climate, driven by servant leadership as a moderator on the relationship between employees’ perceptions of organizational unfairness and customer-oriented constructive deviance. The study collected three-level survey data from 95 hotel managers, 396 employees, and 1,848 customers. We find that servant leadership increases service climate, which in turn strengthens the relationship between organizational injustice toward customers and customer-oriented constructive deviance. The findings also reveal that customer-oriented constructive deviance increases perceived service quality, leading to customer satisfaction. Our study significantly contributes to the emerging theory concerning customer-oriented constructive deviance by explaining the antecedents, consequences, and moderators. The study also helps managers deal with customer-oriented constructive deviance in the workplace.
Hendler, F., K. A. LaTour and J. Cotte (2021): Temporal Orientation and Customer Loyalty Programs, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(), pp.1
Loyalty programs play a prominent role in many firms’ customer relationship management programs, but not all programs are successful. Providers need to understand not only
Kim, H. S. and S. Jang (2021): CEO Overconfidence and Firm Performance: The Moderating Effect of Restaurant Franchising, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(2), pp.276-292
This study examined the effect of CEO overconfidence on restaurant performance and how franchising, a key business format in the restaurant industry, affects the relationship. Based on the notion that overconfident individuals take more risks than non-overconfident people, this study hypothesized that CEO overconfidence positively (negatively) influences restaurant growth (profitability). Furthermore, since franchising reduces operational and financial risk, this study hypothesized that franchising moderates the relationship between CEO overconfidence and firm performance. The results of this study confirmed that CEO overconfidence positively influences firm growth but negatively affects firm profitability in the restaurant industry. This study also found that franchising negatively (positively) influences the effect of CEO overconfidence on restaurant firm growth (profitability). The results suggest that overconfident CEOs are more suitable for growth-seeking restaurant firms but less desirable for profit-seeking firms. The results also highlight that franchising mitigates the risk associated with CEO overconfidence. More detailed results and implications are discussed in this article.
Lopez Mateos, D., M. C. Cohen and N. Pyron (2021): Field Experiments for Testing Revenue Strategies in the Hospitality Industry, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(), pp.1
Field experimentation has been widely adopted as an optimization technique in product design and marketing in several industries. Companies have successfully used field experimentation to reduce costs, increase revenues, and maintain an edge in their customer experience in highly competitive environments. However, in certain quantitative applications, such as revenue management in hospitality, to the authors’ knowledge, there is little publicly documented work on experimentation, and its use remains the privilege of big corporate brands with a small market share. This article discusses the likely causes of the sparse adoption of field experimentation for revenue management in hospitality. It also outlines opportunities that field experimentation can bring to accommodation managers and describes specific types of experimental designs that can help exploit those opportunities. By explicitly addressing the complexities of revenue management, this article aims to start a conversation about experimentation in hospitality that should benefit the industry as a whole.
Lucas, A. F. and K. Spilde (2021): Pushing the Limits of Increased Casino Advantage on Slots: An Examination of Performance Effects and Customer Reactions, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(2), pp.248-260
This field study examined performance data from reel slot games located in two casinos. The paired design incorporated games that appeared identical to the players but featured substantially different, yet concealed, pars (i.e., prices). The results revealed significantly elevated revenues for the high-par games, despite egregious price hikes, while also failing to provide compelling evidence of rational play migration to the low-par games. The latter result suggested that frequently visiting players were not able to detect differences in the pars of games, even over lengthy sample periods. These outcomes were produced by the greatest par gaps of any paired-design study. These expanded gaps also generated the greatest revenue gains within this research stream. Increasing pars may represent a rare opportunity for operators to increase revenues, without concern for eventual brand damage or loss of market share. Limitations regarding the current uses of reel pars are also revealed.
Märklin, P. and G. Bianchi (2021): A Differentiated Approach to the Asset-Light Model in the Hotel Industry, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(), pp.1
This research note aims to prompt a debate over the asset-light strategy that hotels are increasingly implementing nowadays. First, it evaluates the impact of an asset-light model on hotel firms’ returns, return volatility, and the Sharpe ratio, based on annual data from 1970 to 2018 of 65 U.S. public hotel firms. Evidence shows that going asset-light has no significant impact on companies’ returns, return volatility, and performance. Second, the study offers possible explanations behind such results and raises questions for future research.
Masset, P. and J.-P. Weisskopf (2021): New York Restaurants: A Wine Odyssey Between 1865 and 1920, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(), pp.1
We examine the existence of wine in New York City restaurant menus over the period 1865 to 1920 for a sample of 850,000 restaurant menu items and 51,000 wines. Wine was already commonly present on menus in 1865, and its offering increased up until 1914 before dropping with the outbreak of First World War (WWI). Casual restaurants offered a narrower wine selection. Special menus displayed a significantly higher probability of containing wine but with a more limited choice indicating that wine was especially appreciated on special occasions. French wines, especially from Bordeaux and Champagne, were the most represented on menus followed by wines from Germany. The average selling price of a bottle of wine was around US$40 in 2018 terms. Prices, however, fluctuated widely over time and wine type. Notably, American wines were about 50% less expensive than French or German wines.
Mehraliyev, F., Y. Choi and B. King (2021): Theoretical Foundations of Social Media Power in Hospitality and Tourism: A Hierarchical Model, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(2), pp.215-231
There has been exponential growth in the power exercised by social media in hospitality and tourism. The power of social media platforms as stakeholders has been widely accepted by both academics and industry practitioners. However, to the best of the current authors’ knowledge, there has been no conceptualization of the power attributable to social media. On this basis, it is both timely and necessary to establish theoretical grounds that explain the concept of social media power and its application in hospitality and tourism. A hierarchical model that characterizes social media power is constructed in the present article by bringing together fundamental power discourses, media effect theories, and technology determinism. The authors identify definitions and sources of social media power at different levels of the power pyramid and present various technological mechanisms that trigger such sources. This conceptual study proposes theoretical foundations for future research and theory-building.
O’Neill, J. W. and J. Yeon (2021): Hotel Room Rate Discounting During Recessionary Times: Effects by Hotel Class, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(), pp.1
Previous research regarding the costs and benefits of hotel room rate discounting during recessionary times has produced mixed results and recommendations. However, it has become clear that virtually all hotels offer discounted room rates during economic recessions, regardless of the conclusions of research studies, and that includes the recession that began in 2020. Media reports have indicated that certain
Orlowski, M., D. Bufquin and M. E. Nalley (2021): The Influence of Social Perceptions on Restaurant Employee Work Engagement and Extra-Role Customer Service Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Model, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(2), pp.261-275
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of restaurant employees’ social perceptions of their supervisors on employees’ work engagement and extra-role customer service behavior. We also assessed restaurant employees’ social perceptions of their coworkers as a moderator. Utilizing an online survey design, data were collected from frontline restaurant employees via an online commercial subject pool (N = 477). Results showed that the more employees perceive their supervisors as warm, competent, and moral, the more employees were willing to engage in extra-role customer service behavior via the indirect effect of increased work engagement. The effect of work engagement on extra-role customer service was also found to be more pronounced when employees developed positive social perceptions of their coworkers. These results offer implications for work engagement, as they suggest a new antecedent in the form of social perceptions, as well as a boundary condition to the positive outcomes of engagement through the interactive effect of social perceptions of coworkers and extra-role customer service behavior. In doing so, these results also shed light on the relevance of social perceptions in hospitality operations.
Ryu, S., Y.-n. Park and J. Park (2021): Looks Clear and Sounds Familiar: How Consumers Form Inferential Beliefs About Luxury Hotel Service Quality, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(), pp.1
The purpose of this study is to examine how varying levels of brand familiarity and photographic image quality of hotel pictures influence consumers’ perceptions about luxury hotel services and attitudinal responses and whether their visual aesthetic experience and inferential beliefs about service quality can mediate such effects. This is a 2 (brand familiarity: familiar vs. unfamiliar brand) × 2 (image quality: high vs. low image resolution) factorial design randomized experiment and the proposed model was tested using a structural equation model (
Shi, D., B. Yi, F. Shi and S. Satta (2021): Motivation Configuration of Bluxury Tourism Behavior: An FsQCA Application, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(), pp.1
This study investigates the motivation configuration of bluxury tourism behavior. According to complexity theory and push and pull motivation theory, we establish a framework of complex configuration conditions, including push forces, pull forces, and constraints that lead to bluxury tourism. Based on fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, we identified seven main motivation configurations of bluxury tourism behavior covering three core factors: physical factors, seeking/exploration in push forces, and intangible factors in pull forces. In addition, combinations of constraints in the configuration demonstrate various paths leading to bluxury tourism behavior. These findings provide unique insight into bluxury tourism participation.
Shin, M., K.-J. Back, C.-K. Lee and Y.-S. Lee (2021): The Loyalty Program for Our Self-Esteem: The Role of Collective Self-Esteem in Luxury Hotel Membership Programs, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(), pp.1
This research explores the social mechanism of luxury hotel membership programs and extends current loyalty program literature that has mainly examined membership programs from a mental-accounting perspective. By building upon the social identity theory, this study posits that luxury hotel membership programs provide social platforms, allowing members to construct a collective identity and collective self-esteem. Consequently, collective self-esteem is proposed as an antecedent of customer–brand relationship constructs, such as commitment, switching resistance, and word of mouth. Members from two South Korean luxury hotel membership programs were recruited to participate in a survey to test these constructs’ relationship, and findings demonstrate that membership programs’ effectiveness in cultivating a robust customer–brand relationship is contingent upon members’ collective self-esteem with the program. This correlation involves the four dimensions of collective self-esteem: membership esteem, private esteem, public esteem, and importance to identity. This study is preeminent to the current literature by identifying a critical psychological mechanism, which luxury hotel brand managers can leverage to successfully launch a membership program that ultimately cultivates enduring customer–brand relationships. The results of this study also suggest several managerial implications for hotel marketers to effectively design and manage membership programs by considering collective self-esteem’s four dimensions.
Tuomi, A., I. P. Tussyadiah and J. Stienmetz (2021): Applications and Implications of Service Robots in Hospitality, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 67(2), pp.232-247
Service robots continue to permeate and automate the hospitality sector. In doing so, these technological innovations pose to radically change current service production and delivery practices and, consequently, service management and marketing strategies. This study explores the various impacts of robotization in the sector by offering one of the first empirical accounts on the current state-of-the-art of service robotics as deployed in hospitality service encounters. The results suggest that service robots either support or substitute employees in service encounters. They also offer hospitality businesses a novel point of differentiation, but only if properly integrated as part of wider marketing efforts. Finally, the automation of tasks, processes, and, ultimately, jobs has serious socioeconomic implications both at the microlevel and macrolevel. Consequently, hospitality executives need to consider where and how to apply robotization to strike a balance between operational efficiency and customer expectations. Displaying ethical leadership is key to reaping the benefits of the robot revolution.
Büttgen, M., J. Dicenta, K. Spohrer, V. Venkatesh, R. Raman, H. Hoehle, A. De Keyser, C. Verbeeck, T.J. Zwienenberg, K. Peiter Jørgensen, R. Beck, O. Rikken, M. Janssen, Z. Kwee, F. Schär (2021): Blockchain in Service Management and Service Research – Developing a Research Agenda and Managerial Implications, Journal of Service Management Research, 5 (2), pp. 71-102, https://rsw.beck.de/zeitschriften/smr/current-issue
As blockchain technology is maturing to be confidently used in practice, its applications are becoming evident and, correspondingly, more blockchain research is being published, also extending to more domains than before. To date, scientific research in the field has predominantly focused on subject areas such as finance, computer science, and engineering, while the area of service management has largely neglected this topic. Therefore, we invited a group of renowned scholars from different academic fields to share their views on emerging topics regarding blockchain in service management and service research. Their individual commentaries and conceptual contributions refer to different theoretical and domain perspectives, including managerial implications for service companies as well as forward-looking suggestions for further research.
Pundt, F. and M. Lück (2021): Working Conditions and Health of Leaders in Three Service Sectors, Journal of Service Management Research, 5 (2), pp. 103-118, https://rsw.beck.de/zeitschriften/smr/current-issue
This study investigates the job demands, job resources, and health of leaders in three service sectors. The analyses are based on data of the 2018 BIBB/BAuA Employment Survey, a representative sample of the German labour force. The three service sectors trading, finance, and public services varied significantly in how leaders perceive job demands, job resources, psychosomatic health complaints, and musculoskeletal health complaints. Hardly any variation was found, however, in how demands and resources are associated with psychosomatic and musculoskeletal health complaints. These findings imply that service leaders’ perceptions provide sector-specific patterns of demands and resources, which are well reflected in stress theory. The findings further imply that there is no need for sector-specific theories predicting health complaints. The article concludes with a discussion of practical implications for health promotion in the three service sectors and the promotion of leaders’ health.
Naujoks, A. (2021): Quality or Quantity? The Power of Expert Reviews in the Presence of Conflicting Aggregated Ratings, Journal of Service Management Research, 5 (2), pp. 119-129, https://rsw.beck.de/zeitschriften/smr/current-issue
Many consumers consult online reviews to evaluate services. Online review platforms present them with multiple cues by which to assess whether a review message is useful in their decision-making process. However, consumers are often faced with conflicting opinions from different information sources. By using the theoretical framework of dual-process theory and signaling theory, this paper examines the effect of majority and minority influences. It further investigates how expert reviewers are perceived, and the role played by the total number of available reviews. A 2 x 2 x 2 (review valence x expertise of conflicting review x number of reviews) scenario-based experiment is conducted. The results demonstrate that expert sources weaken the prominent influence of the majority, especially when majority size is small. The research contributes to existing literature by explaining how the simultaneous presence of majority and minority influences affects consumers’ decision-making process. Moreover, it examines the power of online expert reviewers.
Yang, S.J., J.H. Han, J.II. Kim (2021): When Do you Trust your Doctor More? A Comparison between Korea to Germany, Journal of Service Management Research, 5 (2), pp. 130-141, https://rsw.beck.de/zeitschriften/smr/current-issue
This research examines the role of demographic homophily in the medical service context. It suggests that demographic homophily between a customer and a service provider has a positive effect on trust, thereby leading to customer loyalty. There is also a mediating effect regarding the clarity of communication and a moderating effect of cultural background on the relationship between demographic homophily and trust. This cross-cultural study compares Korean and German consumers. The moderated mediation effects by cultural background were investigated based on PROCESS, and the mediation effect of trust turned out to be significantly moderated by cultural background. Regardless of cultural background, demographic homophily turned out to be an important explanative variable for building trust with medical service providers. By investigating the significance of demographic homophily and the impact of cultural background, this research contributes to the service marketing field, both academically and practically.