Considered Service-specific journals were Journal of Service Research, Journal of Service Management, Journal of Services Marketing, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, Service Industries Journal, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, and Service Science.
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Ashley, C., J. R. Gilbert and H. A. Leonard (2020): Consumer territorial responses in service settings, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(5), pp.651-663
Purpose: Customers can be territorial, which results in reactive behaviors that can hurt firm profitability. This study aims to expand the typology of customer territorial responses previously identified in the environmental psychology and marketing literature. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use a mixture of quantitative and qualitative approaches. The exploratory studies elicit and test a typology of consumer territorial responses using critical incident technique and factor analysis. Two surveys use the typology. Study 1 examines intrusiveness in grocery store settings. Study 2 expands the model with specialty store shoppers to examine how rapport, employee greed, entitlement and time pressure interact with intrusion pressure and relate to customer territorial responses. Findings: The results indicate a new category of territorial responses – deferential verbalizations – and show relationships between intrusion pressure and deferential actions, retaliatory verbalizations, retaliatory actions and abandonment. The relationships are affected by the moderators, including rapport, which interacts with intrusion pressure to increase the likelihood of switching. Research limitations/implications: Collecting data near closing time restricted observations and consumer time to participate using self-report data. The results should be replicated with other populations and service providers. Practical implications: Managers should monitor customer treatment during closing time. The results indicate consumer responses to closing time cues not only impact their shopping trip but also affect whether they will patronize the store in the future. Originality/value: The study provides an expanded typology of territorial responses, identifies moderating factors that may affect responses and links employee intrusiveness and territorial responses to store patronage.
Barhorst, J. B., A. Wilson, G. J. McLean and J. Brooks (2020): Service encounter microblog word of mouth and its impact on firm reputation, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(5), pp.717-733
Purpose: It has now become a normal part of the consumption journey for consumers to share their positive and negative service encounters with firms on microblogs such as Twitter. There is, however, a limited amount of research on service encounter microblog word of mouth (SEMWOM) and its impact on firm reputation from a receiver’s perspective. This study aims to understand the comparative effects of positive and negative valence SEMWOM on receivers’ perceptions of firms’ reputations and the factors that are particularly salient to receivers’ perceptions of firm reputation upon exposure to SEMWOM. Design/methodology/approach: An experiment exposed 372 Twitter users to positive and negative valence SEMWOM. To determine whether changes in perception of firm reputation occurred on exposure to both positive and negative valence SEMWOM, participants’ perceptions of a range of US airlines were measured before and after exposure to the SEMWOM. To confirm the factors that influence the perception of reputation on such exposure, six structural equation models were created to determine the comparative effects of positive and negative valence SEMWOM among three electronic WOM media as follows: video, photo and text. Findings: Both positive and negative valence SEMWOM affect receivers’ perceptions of airlines’ reputations on exposure. Furthermore, the factors that influence perceptions of reputation on exposure to SEMWOM vary depending on valence and type of media contained in a tweet. Originality/value: Although consumers now routinely share their positive and negative service encounters with brands on microblogs, scant research has examined receivers of positive and negative valence SEMWOM, important actors in the microblog domain. This study addresses this research gap by empirically investigating the impact of both positive and negative valence SEMWOM on receivers’ perceptions of firm reputation upon exposure to it.
Dean, A. and N. Indrianti (2020): Transformative service research at the BoP: the case of Etawa goat farmers in Indonesia, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(5), pp.665-681
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore how value creation and transformative service research (TSR) are interconnected at the base of the pyramid (BoP). To do so, the study seeks consumers’ perceptions of changes in well-being from value creation and the means by which these changes become transformative. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative, longitudinal design was used, involving a community education project in Indonesia. Data collection consisted of interviews with Etawa goat farmers and village leaders after one year (n = 21), and a further three years (n = 10). Findings: Findings from the study are used to advance a model for value creation and TSR at the BoP, which identifies three critical change periods within consumers. These periods suggest that creating improvements in well-being of consumers requires their initial recognition of value outcomes, realisation of agency and a new vision for the future. Research limitations/implications: Research in other contexts is warranted to confirm the model, to further explore well-being from service at the BoP and to identify issues that diminish consumers’ confidence and stall transformation. Methodological challenges at the BoP also present avenues for insightful work. Practical implications: Transformative service at BoP requires an emphasis on suitable structures, collaborative processes and management skills to facilitate consumers gaining agency and control, so that they can use their new and existing resources effectively and/or differently. Social implications: Participants highlighted positive changes to well-being at both individual and collective levels. Notably, some changes were not directly related to initial service provision but reflected improvements, such as employment for women, and better hygiene, health and education of families. Originality/value: By exploring the interconnection between transformative service and value creation, this study addresses the issue of when value creation becomes transformative and vital for poverty alleviation at the BoP. The proposed model incorporates TSR, service logic and other literature, illustrates a process moving from value determination to value expansion and highlights three critical intrasubjective change periods within actors.
Lemken, R. K. and W. J. Rowe (2020): Unpacking the efficacy of organizational routines in the financial services industry, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(5), pp.735-747
Purpose: This paper aims to examine how the efficacy of organizational routines varies and the mechanism through which organizational routines improve firm performance. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model is proposed and tested using data from 53 interviews with financial services experts and 291 survey responses from financial advisors. Findings: Operational and adaptive routines work through absorptive capacity to positively contribute to firm performance. The positive effects of adaptive routines are magnified under market governance. Research limitations/implications: The examination of organizational routines is focused on routines at the firm level. Therefore, higher corporate-level routines were not measured. Response rate for the survey is a possible concern, so future research will benefit from increasing the response rate from the focal population. Practical implications: This study benefits firms facing the dual role of customization and discipline in working with clients toward service delivery. The findings suggest that firms should develop both operational and adaptive routines, particularly when operating under market governance. Originality/value: This study identified two categories of routines (operational and adaptive) and the circumstances in which the causal link between routines and performance varies. This study examined the potential moderating influence of a governance mode (market vs hierarchy). Absorptive capacity was identified as a mediator between the use of routines and firm performance.
Pareek, V. and T. Harrison (2020): SERVBID: the development of a B2C service brand identity scale, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(5), pp.601-620
Purpose: This paper re-conceptualizes and measures brand identity (BI) from a services perspective. This paper aims to develop and test a psychometrically valid and reliable scale to measure service brand identity (SERVBID). Design/methodology/approach: A multi-stage research design was adopted drawing on qualitative and quantitative studies consistent with extant scale development procedures. Qualitative studies comprised a comprehensive literature review, expert panel review and interviews to develop a theoretical framework and generate items. Quantitative studies comprised pilot testing (n = 106), online survey for scale development (n = 246) and scale validation (n = 245) on UK-based consumers using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Findings: The study finds support for a five-dimensional SERVBID scale comprising: process identity; organization identity; symbolic identity; servicescape identity; and communication identity. Practical implications: The SERVBID scale provides practitioners with a practical tool to understand, benchmark and assess SERVBID. The scale will assist marketers in assessing the strength of BI overall as well as the strength of individual facets of BI. Originality/value: This study provides a deeper and complete understanding of the theoretical construct of BI through a service-dominant lens, in particular recognizing the defining role of the service process and servicescape in SERVBID construction.
Rokonuzzaman, M., A. Mukherjee, P. Iyer and A. Mukherjee (2020): Relationship between retailers’ return policies and consumer ratings, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(5), pp.621-633
Purpose: Return policies are major risk-allaying cues for customers, yet they are a critical cost/lost-sales for retailers. Despite their importance in the retailing industry, few studies have examined the interplay of return policies with other cues that customers use to make a purchase decision. Toward this end, this study aims to investigate the interaction effects certain salient high-scope and low-scope cues, such as consumer ratings and brand image, and retailers’ return policies have on consumer purchase decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Building on literature from signaling theory and cue scope literature (high-scope and low-scope cues), the authors develop a research model that hypothesizes the interrelationships between return policies, price discounts, customer product ratings and brand image. Three experimental studies investigate the potential interplay between return policies (lenient vs stringent), price discounts (low vs high), customer product ratings (low vs high) and brand image (high vs low) on quality certainty perceptions and purchase intentions. The mediating effect of quality certainty perceptions on the interplay of various factors (return policy, price promotions, consumer ratings and brand image) and customer purchase intentions is also investigated. Findings: Results indicate that a lenient return policy will have a positive effect when consumers encounter high scope cues that signal undesirable aspects of the product (i.e. low consumer ratings, low brand image). In contrast, when high scope cues signal desirable aspects of the product (i.e. high consumer ratings, high brand image), it attenuates the effects of return policy. The findings suggest that quality certainty acts as a psychological process. Research limitations/implications: Service researchers should seek to examine the role of return policies in a more comprehensive manner. Practical implications: Return policies are important cues for consumers while making purchase decision. Thus, retailers need to realize that these policies may need to be more dynamic or tiered, rather than one-size-fits-all. Originality/value: This study provides a more comprehensive view of how consumers consider multiple cues simultaneously in decision-making. Literature has mainly examined the interactions between different high-scope and low-scope cues, but there has been limited research directed toward the interplay between multiple high-scope cues.
Seger-Guttmann, T. and H. Medler-Liraz (2020): Does emotional labor color service actions in customer buying?, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(5), pp.683-696
Purpose: Service research has highlighted the role of emotional labor in service delivery but has neglected service employees’ actions. This study aims to distinguish between the recurrent in-role and extra-role actions of service employees and to examine the joint effect of service employees’ actions and their emotional labor, which may color these actions on customer buying behavior (number of purchased items and total bill). Design/methodology/approach: Phase I comprised two studies: Study 1 examined 70 service interaction videos to identify employees’ service actions, and Study 2 quantitatively validated the most frequent employee actions, used for further study, by examining 40 employee–customer interactions in fashion stores. For Phase II, Study 3 derived data from 60 service employees’ diaries to predict the joint effect of performed emotional labor and service actions on customer buying behavior. Findings: Findings revealed that emotional labor moderated the relationship between service actions and customer buying behavior. The relationship between in-role/extra-role actions and buying behavior was stronger in the lower surface-acting (less emotional faking) condition, whereas the relationship between in-role/extra-role actions and buying behavior was stronger for the higher deep-acting (more emotionally authentic) condition. Practical implications: Service organizations should not limit training to the more easily attained service actions. This possibility may be lacking if it ignores the emotional component that accompanied the action. This may shift the focus from customer satisfaction to customer delight. Originality/value: This study is a pioneering effort to examine the specific circumstances in which service employees’ actions (regardless of in-role or extra-role status) will not produce the desired customer-related outcome in the presence of emotional labor.
Siegel, J. and W. van Dolen (2020): Child helplines: exploring determinants and boundary conditions of volunteer encounter satisfaction, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(5), pp.589-600
Purpose: Volunteers at child helplines play an important role in providing support for children, so keeping them satisfied during encounters is crucial to continue helping children. The purpose of this study is to understand how children’s perceptions of instrumental and emotional support (partner effects) influence volunteer encounter satisfaction, and whether this effect is moderated by a volunteer’s previous encounter experience and levels of interpersonal and service-offering adaptiveness. Design/methodology/approach: The sample consisted of 377 dyads of 116 volunteers and 377 children from online service encounters at a child helpline. Questionnaires were used to measure satisfaction, support and volunteer adaptiveness. A multilevel model was estimated to test the hypothesized moderation effects. Findings: This study revealed that the instrumental support partner effect positively influenced volunteer encounter satisfaction. This relationship was stronger when the previous encounter was less satisfying or for volunteers with higher interpersonal, but not higher service-offering, adaptiveness. Negative effects on the relationship between the emotional support partner effect and volunteer encounter satisfaction were found after a less satisfying previous encounter or for volunteers with higher interpersonal adaptiveness. Originality/value: This study contributes to the services and volunteerism literature by providing a unique perspective on the interpersonal influence between volunteers and children during service encounters. In the context of child helplines, this paper illustrates how volunteer encounter satisfaction is a function of the intricate interplay between children’s perceptions of the service encounter and volunteers’ perceptions of previous experiences and their adaptiveness.
Tan, A. J. M., R. Loi, L. W. Lam and C. C. Chow (2020): Buffering negative impacts of jaycustomer behavior on service employees, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(5), pp.635-650
Purpose: Service employees often encounter jaycustomer behavior in their daily interactions with customers. This paper aims to investigate the influences of day-to-day jaycustomer behavior on service employees’ performance and behavior, as well as the managerial practice to buffer its negative impacts in the retail industry. Design/methodology/approach: Diary survey data was collected from 73 service employees in 10 consecutive working days. Multi-level modeling analyses were used to analyze the data. Findings: Daily jaycustomer behavior triggered daily anger and daily anxiety, which, in turn, led to daily sabotage and shrunken daily service delivery, respectively. Procedural justice weakened the jaycustomer behavior – anger relationship but did not buffer the relationship between jaycustomer behavior and anxiety. The indirect effect of jaycustomer behavior on sabotage via anger was stronger when employees perceived low rather than high procedural justice. Research limitations/implications: Future research can explore other types of contextual factors to alleviate the negative impacts of jaycustomer behavior. Practical implications: Considering the importance of procedural justice in reducing negative consequences of jaycustomer behavior, retail organizations should develop fair decision-making procedures. Originality/value: This study has several contributions. First, this study advances understanding on detrimental impacts of jaycustomer behavior by distinguishing employees’ acute emotional responses and explaining the differential behavioral outcomes on service quality. Second, the authors apply a daily research paradigm to better capture the daily-happening nature of jaycustomer behavior. Third, the authors add to the insufficient knowledge of buffering the negative effects of jaycustomer behavior on service employees by investigating procedural justice as a moderator.
Virlée, J., A. C. R. van Riel and W. Hammedi (2020): Health literacy and its effects on well-being: how vulnerable healthcare service users integrate online resources, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(5), pp.697-715
Purpose: This study aims to develop a better understanding of how online health community (OHC) members with different health literacy (HL) levels benefit from their participation, through the analysis and comparison of their resource integration (RI) processes. It investigates through a RI lens how the vulnerability of community members – captured as their level of HL – affects the benefits they derive from participation. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to investigate the effects of healthcare service users’ vulnerability. Data were collected about their profiles and levels of HL. Furthermore, 15 in-depth interviews were conducted. Findings: The study demonstrates how low levels of HL act as a barrier to the integration of available online health resources. Participation in OHCs appears less beneficial for vulnerable users. Three types of benefits were identified at the individual level, namely, psychological quality-of-life, physical quality-of-life and learning. Benefits identified at the community level were: content generation and participation in the development of the community. Originality/value: This study has implications for the understanding of how service users’ activities affect their own outcomes and how the vulnerability of users could be anticipated and considered in the design of the community.
Nasrollahzadeh, A. A. and A. Khademi (2020): Optimal Stopping of Adaptive Dose-Finding Trials, Service Science, 12(43864), pp.80-99
The primary objective of this paper is to develop computationally efficient methods for optimal stopping of an adaptive Phase II dose-finding clinical trial, where the decision maker may terminate the trial for efficacy or abandon it as a result of futility. We develop two solution methods and compare them in terms of computational time and several performance metrics such as the probability of correct stopping decision. One proposed method is an application of the one-step look-ahead policy to this problem. The second proposal builds a diffusion approximation to the state variable in the continuous regime and approximates the trial?s stopping time by optimal stopping of a diffusion process. The secondary objective of the paper is to compare these methods on different dose-response curves, particularly when the true dose-response curve has no significant advantage over a placebo. Our results, which include a real clinical trial case study, show that look-ahead policies perform poorly in terms of the probability of correct decision in this setting, whereas our diffusion approximation method provides robust solutions.
Tafreshian, A., N. Masoud and Y. Yin (2020): Frontiers in Service Science: Ride Matching for Peer-to-Peer Ride Sharing: A Review and Future Directions, Service Science, 12(43864), pp.44-60
As a consequence of the sharing economy attaining more popularity, there has been a shift toward shared-use mobility services in recent years, especially those that encourage users to share their personal vehicles with others. To date, different variants of these services have been proposed that call for different settings and give rise to different research questions. Peer-to-peer (P2P) ride sharing is one such service that provides a platform for drivers to share their personal trips with riders who have similar itineraries. Unlike ride-sourcing services, drivers in P2P ride sharing have their own individual trips to make and are not driving for the sole purpose of serving rider requests. Unlike traditional carpooling, P2P ride sharing can serve on-demand and one-time trip requests. P2P ride sharing has been identified as a sustainable mode of transportation that results in several individual and societal benefits. The core of a P2P ride-sharing system is a ride-matching problem that determines ride-sharing plans for users. This paper reviews the major studies on the operations of P2P ride-sharing systems, with a focus on modeling and solution methodologies for matching, routing, and scheduling. In this paper, we classify ride-sharing systems based on their operational features and review the existing methodologies for each class. We further discuss a number of important directions for future research.
Walsman, M. C. and M. J. Dixon (2020): Fee-Based Loyalty Programs: An Empirical Investigation of Benefit Redemption Behavior and Its Effects on Loyalty, Service Science, 12(43864), pp.100-118
Loyalty program (LP) membership gives customers access to benefits such as free, discounted, or upgraded products or services; however, firms are increasingly charging customers enrollment fees for access to benefits instead of allowing them to earn benefits through repeat patronage. We sketch the evolution and design of LPs over the past 200 years and distinguish between several types of programs (free rewards-based programs and paid membership programs) and the types of benefits they offer (discounts and giveaways). We propose a theoretical model that hypothesizes that members who pay directly for LPs will use different benefits than customer who receive LP membership as a bundled package. Furthermore, we hypothesis that different benefit use moderates loyalty behavior. We test the hypotheses using a database of restaurant LP customers and find partial support for our hypotheses; in response to the sunk-cost effect and expectancy-value theory, a paid LP enrollment brings with it a need to self-justify and find the easiest path to investment payoff. Bundled members are more inclined to use lesser-used benefits. Our results suggest that proliferation of benefits may not translate into improved service, loyalty, or satisfaction.
Zhang, A., J. E. Kang and C. Kwon (2020): Generalized Stable User Matching for Autonomous Vehicle Co-Ownership Programs, Service Science, 12(43864), pp.61-79
We investigate a new form of car-sharing system that can be introduced in the market for autonomous vehicles called fractional ownership or co-ownership. Although dynamic ride sharing provides ad hoc shared mobility services without any long-term commitment, we consider co-ownership programs with which users can still ?own? a car with committed usage and ownership. We assume that an autonomous vehicle is shared by a group of users, which is only accessible by the group. We use stable matching to help users find an appropriate group with which to share an autonomous vehicle and present a generalized stable matching model that allows flexible sizes of groups as well as various alternative objectives. We also present a heuristic algorithm to improve computational time owing to the combinatorial properties of the problem.
Siddiqi, U. I., J. Sun and N. Akhtar (2020): The role of conflicting online reviews in consumers’ attitude ambivalence, Service Industries Journal, 40(0), pp.1003-1030
The extant literature overlooks conflicting online hotel reviews from the perspective of online and offline factors and their effect on attitude ambivalence, which determines consumer behavior. The present study fills this research gap using the heuristic–systematic model of information processing and examines: (1) how conflicting customer star ratings (i.e. heuristic cues) and opinions about hotel attributes (i.e. systematic cues) engender attitude ambivalence, (2) how offline interpersonal informational influence moderates the relationship between conflicting reviews and attitude ambivalence, and (3) relational impact on purchase intentions. The data collected from 382 inbound tourists in Beijing, China reveal the positive effect of conflicting star ratings and opinions about hotel attributes on attitude ambivalence, which lowers consumers’ purchase intentions. This study also finds a significant role of offline interpersonal informational influence as a moderator. Theoretical implications are provided, and findings have strategic managerial implications with the acknowledgement of limitations and directions for future scholars. (English)
Kosiba, J. P., H. Boateng, A. F. Okoe and R. Hinson (2020): Trust and customer engagement in the banking sector in Ghana, Service Industries Journal, 40(0), pp.960-973
Customer engagement has become a topical issue in the marketing literature in recent times. Many researchers have called for more research to be done on the antecedents of customer engagement. In response to this call, we examine the impact of trust on customer engagement. We used the survey research design to address the research question. We used the intercept approach to select the participants of the study. We collected the data from retail banking customers in Ghana. The hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The findings of this study show that trust in service providers and economy-based trust have a significant and positive effect on emotional engagement, cognitive engagement, and behavioural engagement. The implications of the findings have been discussed at the end of the paper. (English)
Chandni, S. and Z. Rahman (2020): Customer engagement and employee engagement: systematic review and future directions, Service Industries Journal, 40(0), pp.932-959
An extensive literature review and analysis of 74 articles spanning over more than 11 years and 39 journals has been carried out so as to present the current state of research in the domains of customer engagement and employee engagement and to identify a common ground for future research in these areas. By providing sets of favourable outcomes of customer/employee engagement, scales to measure them and their process mechanisms in a single picture, the study can help organizations in designing and implementing future strategies. This is the first simultaneous systematic review of customer engagement and employee engagement that provides a detailed understanding of extant literature and comprehensive research avenues. (English)
Akhtar, N., M. Nadeem Akhtar, M. Usman, M. Ali and U. Iqbal Siddiqi (2020): COVID-19 restrictions and consumers’ psychological reactance toward offline shopping freedom restoration, Service Industries Journal, 40(0), pp.891-913
The COVID-19 pandemic threats and its subsequent restrictions on people’s freedom, social interaction, closures of workplaces and shopping stores have caused public psychological reactance. In response, the study develops and tests a conceptual framework, which unveils the effects of perceived choice hesitation and perceived choice confidence on consumers’ psychological reactance. It also corroborates two bipolar behavioral outcomes of consumers’ psychological reactance— choice freedom satisfaction and resistance to persuasion. We employ the moderating role of anticipated worry and trust in government in strengthening the psychological reactance and final behavioral outcomes, respectively. Data collected from the country of origin of COVID-19 pandemic indicated the positive effects of antecedents on psychological reactance, which negatively affected choice freedom satisfaction and positively to resistance to persuasion. Anticipated worry and trust in government positively moderated these relationships. Findings extend the literature on psychology, service management, and consumer behavior, and suggest to government policymakers and store managers. (English)
Binder, P. (2020): Impacts of network relationships on absorptive capacity in the context of innovation, Service Industries Journal, 40(0), pp.974-1002
Knowledge acquired through external network relationships is widely accepted as one of the most important resources for a firm to be innovative. This is especially true for the networked tourism industry, where capabilities associated with the acquisition, assimilation and exploitation of external knowledge (‘absorptive capacity’) are paramount. While several studies highlight the importance of network relationships to acquire new knowledge, most of them remain vague in explaining their impact on the assimilation and exploitation of the knowledge. This paper investigates the impacts of network relationships on absorptive capacity dimensions. A quantitative survey among 378 hotel businesses was carried out to measure network participation and relationship quality as well as the absorptive capacity. Regression models reveal that the quality of external relationships and the overall network size implicate access and availability of valuable knowledge and positively affect the organization’s capacity to assimilate and exploit the knowledge in pursuit of innovation. (English)
Williams, C. C. and A. Kayaoglu (2020): COVID-19 and undeclared work: impacts and policy responses in Europe, Service Industries Journal, 40(0), pp.914-931
The Coronavirus pandemic has led to restrictions on movement and workplace closures, resulting in governments offering temporary financial support to enterprises and workers. This paper evaluates a group unable to access this financial support, namely those in the undeclared economy, and possible policy responses. To identify the service industries and workers involved, a late 2019 Eurobarometer survey of undeclared work in Europe is reported. This reveals that undeclared work is particularly prevalent in the hospitality, retail and personal services sectors and identifies the population groups over-represented. Given that this undeclared workforce is now largely unable to work, it will be argued that providing access to temporary financial support, through a voluntary disclosure initiative, would be a useful initiative not only to provide the income support these enterprises and workers need but also to bring them out of the shadows and put them on the radar of the state authorities.