Today we identify service articles published in Marketing, Management, Operations, Productions, Information Systems & Practioner-oriented Journals in the last month.
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Gustafsson, A., H. Snyder and L. Witell (2020): Service Innovation: A New Conceptualization and Path Forward, Journal of Service Research, 23(2), pp.111-115
Service innovations challenge existing offerings and business models, shape existing markets, and create new ones. Over the last decade, service research has shown increasing interest in the concept of innovation and should by now have reached maturity and created a strong theoretical basis. However, there is no coherent theoretical framework that captures all the facets of service innovation, and to move service innovation research forward, we must revisit the key assumptions of what an innovation is. To enable this, the present article addresses three fundamental questions about service innovation: (1) What is it and what is it not? (2) What do we know and what do we not know? and (3) What do we need to know to advance service research? By doing so, this article offers an updated and comprehensive definition of service innovation and provides a research agenda to suggest a path forward.
Friend, S. B., F. Jaramillo and J. S. Johnson (2020): Ethical Climate at the Frontline: A Meta-Analytic Evaluation, Journal of Service Research, 23(2), pp.116-138
Long-term customer relationships develop over repeated interactions, underscoring the importance of frontline employees (FLEs) engaging in ethical behaviors. Therefore, organizations must understand how a strong ethical climate (EC) may affect attitudes and behaviors among FLEs. This study reviews frontline-related EC research and employs a meta-analytic approach to investigate the direct, indirect, and contingent effects of EC on FLE actions, attitudes, and outcomes. The authors reviewed 67 frontline-related studies comprising a sample of 21,118 respondents to assess meta-analytic associations and derive a model for structural testing. The findings from this study show that a strong EC drives customer-oriented behaviors, fosters desirable job attitudes, reduces felt stress, increases perceived performance, and decreases turnover intentions among FLEs. The strength of theses associations is often predicated on individual-level (FLE experience), study-level (response rate), and country-level (perceived corruption, individualism/collectivism) factors. This study offers theoretical and managerial contributions germane to multiple uncertainties in service literature about EC’s implications on FLEs, including EC’s ability to break through sources of tension-facing FLEs, the mediated nature of EC’s impact on perceived performance through frontline actions, and the generalizability of the economic and human benefits of EC across service contexts and frontline roles that foster greater diffusion in practice.
Sweeney, J., A. Payne, P. Frow and D. Liu (2020): Customer Advocacy: A Distinctive Form of Word of Mouth, Journal of Service Research, 23(2), pp.139-155
Enthusiastic customer endorsements can significantly influence buying decisions and drive sales. In service contexts, advocates are especially important because the specific and complex characteristics of services make personal recommendations very effective. Customer advocacy communications differ from other positive word of mouth (PWOM), though literature on advocacy is surprisingly sparse and inconsistent. Notably, advocacy is strong, passionate, explicit, and ongoing, with an explicit goal of positively influencing others’ views. As its central theoretical contributions, this article defines advocacy; identifies advocacy as a distinctive form of PWOM; conceptualizes advocacy according to a hierarchy of behaviors, which increase in intensity and effort; and develops a robust, reliable advocacy scale. By investigating positive behavioral outcomes of different levels of advocacy, this study also reveals the importance of identifying strong advocates, rather than just those who give PWOM, as well as salient drivers of advocacy. Accordingly, this article establishes a platform for further investigations of the importance of advocates, as well as recommendations to help managers identify these potentially valuable advocates.
Blut, M., N. Heirati and K. Schoefer (2020): The Dark Side of Customer Participation: When Customer Participation in Service Co-Development Leads to Role Stress, Journal of Service Research, 23(2), pp.156-173
While numerous studies have examined the benefits of customer participation (CP), understanding of the dark side of involving customers in service firms’ processes is limited. This study proposes that the changing role of customers who actively participate in service co-development can cause role stress and negative feelings, which may, in turn, reduce customer satisfaction and the perceived value of participation. We develop and test a comprehensive role theory–based framework for CP-role stress. Using a video-based experiment, behavioral lab experiment, and field study, we find that greater CP leads to heightened role stress including role conflict, role overload, and role ambiguity. These adverse effects occur contingent on customers’ prior participation experience and firm-provided support. Furthermore, role stress effects vary across service co-development types depending on (a) the scope of the task (i.e., open task, closed task) and (b) the beneficiary of participation (i.e., customer, general market). Specifically, adverse effects are stronger for open than for closed tasks, and they also tend to be stronger when the beneficiary is the general market rather than the individual customer. These findings emphasize the need for more cross-context theorizing in CP research. Managers should consider these adverse effects and implement measures that reduce role stress.
Gao, L., I. Melero-Polo and F. J. Sese (2020): Customer Equity Drivers, Customer Experience Quality, and Customer Profitability in Banking Services: The Moderating Role of Social Influence, Journal of Service Research, 23(2), pp.174-193
Financial service organizations are increasingly interested in ways to improve the service experience quality for customers, while customers progressively perceive the commoditization of banking services. This is no easy task, as factors outside the control of the service firm can influence customers’ perceptions of their experience. This study builds on the customer equity framework to understand the linkages between what the firm does (customer equity drivers: value equity, brand equity, and relationship equity), the social environment (social influence), the customer experience quality, and its ultimate impact on profitability. Using perceptual and transactional data for a sample of customers of financial services, we demonstrate the central role played by factors under the control of the firm (value, brand, and relationship equity) and those outside its control (social influence) in shaping customers’ perceptions of the quality of their experience. We offer new insights into the moderating role of social influence in the linkages between the customer equity drivers and the customer experience quality. The managerial takeaway is that the impact of customer equity drivers on the customer experience quality is contingent on the influence exerted by other people and that enhancing customer experience quality can be a way to increase monetary returns.
Linzmajer, M., S. Brach, G. Walsh and T. Wagner (2020): Customer Ethnic Bias in Service Encounters, Journal of Service Research, 23(2), pp.194-210
As ethnic diversity continues to rise, customer bias in interethnic service encounters becomes an increasingly problematic issue for the parties involved, the service firms, and society at large. Against this background, the aim of our research is to examine ethnically biased customer responses, their key psychological mechanisms, and the effectiveness of enacted service scripts to shape interethnic service encounters. Building on the aversive racism framework and homophily theory, we propose a baseline effect of majority customers’ ethnic bias toward minority employees in the form of less positive behaviors in interethnic service encounters. In an initial laboratory study, we use experimental video simulations of frontline service encounters and confirm the robustness of this effect across two replications. In a subsequent field experiment, we test an extended framework of customer responses to interethnic service encounters, finding that customers’ experience of rapport and identification with the firm represent two serial mediators that facilitate the effects of interethnic service encounters on customer loyalty intentions. Together, these contributions enrich our understanding of how psychological mechanisms facilitate the incidence of ethnically biased customer behavior and also provide insights into viable ways to improve such encounters.
Kelleher, C., D. O’Loughlin, J. Gummerus and L. Peñaloza (2020): Shifting Arrays of a Kaleidoscope: The Orchestration of Relational Value Cocreation in Service Systems, Journal of Service Research, 23(2), pp.211-228
The predominant value discourse among scholars characterizes value cocreation as involving multiple actors at the micro-, meso-, and macrolevels in service systems. This research contributes to the knowledge of the interdependencies among multiple resource-integrating actors and value outcomes by employing a relational perspective on value cocreation within the empirical context of family caregiving. The findings reveal how interdependent actors orchestrate value cocreation in service systems, how this impacts value, and how orchestration precipitates system adjustments, which form the recursive context of value cocreation over time. We differentiate and delineate three multi-actor orchestration mechanisms— assembling, performing, and brokering —through which nonreferent beneficiaries coordinate value cocreation on behalf of dependent referent beneficiaries. We term the mutually generalized oscillating multiform negative and positive well-being outcomes that emerge from orchestration among interdependent actors as relational value. In employing the metaphor of the kaleidoscope to emphasize system dynamism, our discussion of relational value cocreation deepens our understanding of how nonreferent beneficiary-led orchestration, founded on generalized mutuality and on behalf of referent beneficiaries with reduced agency, enhances and balances multiform, oscillating and positive and negative well-being outcomes in service systems. This will help service practitioners facilitate orchestration and optimize value for all.
Sudbury-Riley, L., P. Hunter-Jones, A. Al-Abdin, D. Lewin and M. V. Naraine (2020): The Trajectory Touchpoint Technique: A Deep Dive Methodology for Service Innovation, Journal of Service Research, 23(2), pp.229-251
This article introduces the trajectory touchpoint technique (TTT), a service design methodology that harnesses customer experiences for enriched understanding of value throughout multilevel service components to ultimately increase innovativeness. We detail the design and development of the TTT using design science research, a goal-oriented methodology that produces robust and practical solutions to organizational problems. We demonstrate the TTT’s practical utility through collaborations with different organizations (n = 9) and diverse service users (n = 240). We show how the TTT is an easy to use methodology that enhances understanding of value creation and illustrate its benefits with concrete examples of innovations to service encounters, the service system, and the value constellation. We reveal how a service design methodology can be the bridge between the theoretical standpoint of S-D logic’s perspective on value cocreation and the practical tools and techniques required to operationalize it.
Meyer, P., J. M. Jonas and A. Roth (2020): Frontline Employees’ Acceptance of and Resistance to Service Robots in Stationary Retail – An Exploratory Interview Study, Journal of Service Management Research, 4(1), pp.21-34
Due to rising online competition, increasing cost pressure and cross-channel customer journeys, stationary retail has tried to develop innovative value propositions and co-create value with customers through new technologies, which are expected to profoundly change the stationary retail’s service systems. Among other technologies, service robots are said to have the potential to revitalise interactive value creation in stationary retail. However, the integration of such technologies poses new challenges. Prior research has looked at customers’ acceptance of service robots in stationary retail set- tings, but few studies have explored their counter- parts – the frontline employees’ (FLEs) perspective. Yet, FLEs’ acceptance of service robots is crucial to implement service robots for retail innovation. To explore FLEs’ acceptance of and resistance to ser- vice robots, a qualitative exploratory interview study is conducted. It identifies decisive aspects, amongs to thers loss of status or role in congruency. The findings extend prior studies on technology acceptance and resistance and reveal i.a. that FLEs perceive service robots as both a threat and potential support. Moreover, they feel hardly involved in the co-creation of use cases for a service robot, al- though they are willing to contribute.
Bolton, R. N. (2020): Commentary: future directions of the service discipline, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(3), pp.279-289
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest some ways that service scholars can shape the future of the service discipline by building knowledge that is useful to businesses, individuals, communities, institutions, society and the bio-environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper explicitly considers how global trends are likely to influence future research challenges in the service discipline. Then, service research priorities are identified by drawing upon the principles of responsible research in business and management (RRBM) (www.rrbm.net). Findings: The paper identifies and analyzes many future service challenges arising from socioeconomic, demographic, technology and service systems, environmental and social changes. These changes are categorized as favorable and unfavorable in their effect on the well-being of people, organizations, society and the environment. Research limitations/implications: This paper advocates more study of sustainability in service ecosystems, automation and the nature of service work, inclusion, equality and well-being of service workers; service in subsistence markets and the societal implications of new technology and big data. Practical implications: The paper provides guidance for service marketers regarding research questions that are important to society and will need to be addressed by the year 2050. It translates the principles of RRBM into useful approaches to service marketing challenges that can be followed by all service researchers. Social implications: This paper discusses important societal issues such as individual and societal needs for privacy, security and transparency; the ethical sourcing and treatment of service workers and the impact of service actions on environmental outcomes. Originality/value: The conceptual framework integrates knowledge about service research in a new way, with insights for future service researchers, managers and public policymakers.
Grönroos, C. (2020): Viewpoint: service marketing research priorities, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(3), pp.291-298
Purpose: This paper aims to emphasize two key research priorities central to the domain of service marketing. Design/methodology/approach: Reflections based on conceptual analysis of the current level of knowledge of service as an offering and of the nature of service marketing in the literature. Findings: It is observed that research into marketing and into service as an object of marketing, or as an offering, has been neglected for two decades and more. It is also shown that to restore its credibility, marketing needs to be reinvented. Furthermore, the point is made that if a proper understanding of service as an object of, for example, innovation, design, branding and development is lacking, or even only implicitly present, valid research into those and other important topics is at risk. Research limitations/implications: This paper discusses two neglected topics within the domain of service research. Other important areas of future research are not covered. However, the paper offers directions for service marketing research fundamental to the development of the discipline. Originality/value: In earlier discussions of service and service marketing research priorities, the observation that service and marketing are neglected topics that need to be studied and further developed has not been made. The paper emphasizes that service marketing research also needs to return to its roots and suggests possible directions for future research.
Furrer, O., J. Yu Kerguignas, C. Delcourt and D. D. Gremler (2020): Twenty-seven years of service research: a literature review and research agenda, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(3), pp.299-316
Purpose: The growing service sector has experienced several revolutions that have transformed the way services are created and delivered. In parallel, services increasingly pique the interest of scholars, resulting in an expanding body of knowledge. Accordingly, it is time to reflect on extant service research, assess its boundaries, and think about its future. This paper aims to consider three research questions: How has service research evolved over the past 27 years? Which articles have most influenced the evolution of service research in the past 27 years? What are the most promising research themes for the future? Design/methodology/approach: To answer these questions, the authors analyze the contents of 3,177 service research articles published in ten major academic journals between 1993 and August 2019. Multiple correspondence analysis reveals the evolution of key service research themes and their underlying relationships. Findings: The research themes are organized in a growth–share matrix with four quadrants (stars, question marks, cash cows and pets) and also combine into four research clusters (human resource management, organizational behavior and strategy, technology, and operations and customer behavior and marketing). Together with a specified list of influential articles that have shaped the evolution of service research, these insights suggest an agenda for research. Originality/value: Acknowledging the vast growth of service research, this study presents an up-to-date picture of the discipline and an agenda to stimulate continued research.
Bock, D. E., J. S. Wolter and O. C. Ferrell (2020): Artificial intelligence: disrupting what we know about services, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(3), pp.317-334
Purpose: Artificial intelligence (AI) is currently having a dramatic impact on marketing. Future manifestations of AI are expected to bring even greater change, possibly ushering in the realization of the fourth industrial revolution. In accord with such expectations, this paper aims to examine AI’s current and potential impact on prominent service theories as related to the service encounter. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews dominant service theories and their relevance to AI within the service encounter. Findings: In doing so, this paper presents an integrated definition of service AI and identifies the theoretical upheaval it creates, triggering a plethora of key research opportunities. Originality/value: Although scholars and practitioners are gaining a deeper understanding of AI and its role in services, this paper highlights that much is left to be explored. Therefore, service AI may require substantial modifications to existing theories or entirely new theories.
Baker, J., K. Bentley and J. C. Lamb (2020): Service environment research opportunities, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(3), pp.335-346
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the evolution of the service environment literature and speculates about future research in this area. This paper focuses on studies regarding how the interior and exterior environments of physical service settings (including retail stores) influence consumer response. Web atmospherics are not covered in this paper. In addition, while a number of studies have been conducted on retail and service atmospherics elements in other disciplines, such as environmental psychology and leisure and hospitality, the focus is on research published in marketing and consumer-related journals. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports the results of empirical studies; however, as there are few empirical studies on the effects of exterior environmental characteristics (e.g. storefronts) in marketing, two conceptual papers on this topic will be reviewed to set the stage for future research on exterior design. Findings: Over the past 40 years, there has been a proliferation of articles on how service environments influence consumer responses. The review covers illustrative examples of articles in several categories of environmental topics. The areas for future research based on the review are suggested. Originality/value: An up-to-date review of service environment research that is broad in scope is provided. The authors also propose 41 different research questions based on the review that services scholars can use to take this area of inquiry forward.
Zainuddin, N. and R. Gordon (2020): Value creation and destruction in social marketing services: a review and research agenda, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(3), pp.347-361
Purpose: This paper aims to provide a review of the extant literature on value creation and destruction in social marketing services for social change, for the purposes of developing a research agenda for future research in this area. Creating value in social marketing services is now identified as a key focus for social marketing (Russell-Bennett et al., 2009; Domegan et al., 2013), yet work in this area is nascent and conceptual, methodological, and empirical work is needed to advance the research agenda (Zainuddin et al., 2013; 2016). Design/methodology/approach: To help shape the future of research on value in social marketing services, this paper appraises the contributions of the current research literature, and identifies gaps in the current knowledge. A systematic literature review was conducted, following the PRISMA protocol for conducting and reporting systematic reviews (Moher et al., 2009). The review covers the areas of value creation in social marketing, value destruction in social marketing, dimensions of value in social marketing, and from value-in-exchange, to value-in-use, to value-in-behaviour in social change. Findings: A research agenda for further work in this area is provided within the themes of 1. conceptual development, 2. broadening ontological, epistemological, and methodological foundations, 3. research contexts, and 4. measuring and evaluating value in social marketing services. Within each of these themes, a series of research questions are provided to guide further work in the four identified themes. Originality/value: This paper is the first to offer a review of the extant literature on value creation and destruction in social marketing and social marketing services, and offer a research agenda for future work in this area. This paper contributes to services marketing and the development of service thinking as key component of social marketing, and the role that value creation plays in this (Russell-Bennett et al., 2013).
Hult, G. T. M., T. A. Walkowiak and J. M. Beck (2020): Service research: progress toward interdisciplinary collaboration, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(3), pp.363-371
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to promote a broadened view of service research and to demonstrate a path for integrating interdisciplinary perspectives with services marketing. Design/methodology/approach: Two major streams of service literature are reviewed, highlighting key conceptual developments in each. Through synthesis of prior literature, a research framework and agenda are developed. Findings: The findings indicate that major service research areas have been extensively explored, yet service literature is fragmented on key concepts. This can make it challenging to collaborate across disciplines. This work develops a framework for integrating concepts across disciplines to foster more impactful work. Originality/value: This work presents a unique framework for integrating interdisciplinary perspectives with services marketing. Moreover, a research agenda for the specific purpose of promoting collaboration across disciplines is presented.
Koskela-Huotari, K., J. Vink and B. Edvardsson (2020): The institutional turn in service research: taking stock and moving ahead, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(3), pp.373-387
Purpose: Service scholars are finding that institutions – enduring social structures, such as rules, norms, beliefs – are increasingly important in theorizing on service-related phenomena. The purpose of this paper is to advance the use of institutional theory in service research by synthesizing the key insights from institutional theory that have been applied to service-related phenomena and developing a research agenda to guide the future use of institutional theory in service research. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is an integrative literature review covering 68 articles from major service research and marketing journals that adopt institutional concepts and frameworks to study service-related phenomena. Findings: The paper maps the “institutional turn” of service research, that is, the increasing tendency to draw on institutional theory for theoretical insights within service research and builds a conceptual framework of the institutional stabilization and destabilization mechanisms that explain endurance and change in service phenomena. The paper also proposes a research agenda that outlines four previously ignored aspects of institutions that have important implications for service research. Research limitations/implications: In addition to synthesizing insights and proposing directions for future research, the paper highlights specific theoretical and methodological considerations for the future use of institutional theory within service research. The literature review is limited to the 13 major service research and marketing journals. Originality/value: This paper is the first literature review of the use of institutional theory in service research.
Klaus, P. and J. Zaichkowsky (2020): AI voice bots: a services marketing research agenda, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(3), pp.389-398
Purpose: This paper aims to document how AI has changed the way consumers make decisions and propose how that change impacts services marketing, service research and service management. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature, documentation of sales and customer service experiences support the evolution of bot-driven consumer decision-making, proposing the bot-driven service platform as a key component of the service experience. Findings: Today the focus is on convenience, the less time and effort, the better. The authors propose that AI has taken convenience to a new level for consumers. By using bots as their service of choice, consumers outsource their decisions to algorithms, hence give little attention to traditional consumer decision-making models and brand emphasis. At the moment, this is especially true for low involvement types of decisions, but high involvement decisions are on the cusp of delegating to AI. Therefore, management needs to change how they view consumers’ decision-making-processes and how services are being managed. Research limitations/implications: In an AI-convenience driven service economy, the emphasis needs to be on search ranking or warehouse stock, rather than the traditional drivers of brand values such as service quality. Customer experience management will shift from interaction with products and services toward interactions with new service platforms such as AI, bots. Hence, service marketing, as the authors know it might be in decline and be replaced by an efficient complex attribute computer decision-making model. Originality/value: The change in consumer behavior leads to a change in the service marketing approach needed in the world of AI. The bot, the new service platform is now in charge of search and choice for many purchase situations.
Mustak, M. and L. Plé (2020): A critical analysis of service ecosystems research: rethinking its premises to move forward, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(3), pp.399-413
Purpose: This study aims to examine the development of service ecosystems literature and its four premises as follows: the characterization of service ecosystems as loosely coupled systems, the existence of shared institutional arrangements among actors, the occurrence of resource-integrating interactions among actors and value co-creation as the stated purpose of service ecosystems. Design/methodology/approach: With a systematic literature review, the paper identifies and analyzes 98 articles on service ecosystems. An examination and a cross-check of the central elements of the articles reveal gaps and limitations in the analysis of service ecosystems. These results lead to the formulation of four propositions and suggestions for further research. Findings: The four premises of service ecosystems are constrained by overly optimistic perceptions that prevent theoretical advancements. These premises overlook possible tight coupling; power asymmetries; divergent interpretations of institutions and institutional arrangements; divergent interpretations of actors’ resource-integrating actions, intentions and abilities; and the co-destruction of value. Four propositions are formulated to address these challenges. Research limitations/implications: The shortcomings reflect the systematic literature review, which only covers a specific area of the extant knowledge base, namely, English-language articles published in peer-reviewed international journals. Originality/value: This study extensively and critically investigates the premises of service ecosystems for the first time, proposing a more holistic, dynamic and realistic understanding of them. In so doing, it paves the way for renewed conceptualizations of service ecosystems.
Brodie, R. J. and L. D. Peters (2020): New directions for service research: refreshing the process of theorizing to increase contribution, Journal of Services Marketing, 34(3), pp.415-428
Purpose: For service research to develop as an applied social science there is the need to refresh the process of theorizing so it focuses not only on increasing new academic knowledge but also on knowledge that is managerially relevant. This paper aims to provide guidelines to achieve this. Design/methodology/approach: A theorizing process that integrates general theoretic perspectives and contextual research to develop midrange theory is developed. The process is based on the philosophical foundations of pragmatism and abductive reasoning, which has the origins in the 1950s when the management sciences were being established. Findings: A recent research stream that develops midrange theory about customer and actor engagement is used to illustrate the theorizing process. Practical implications: Practicing managers, customers and other stakeholders in a service system use theory, so there is a need to focus on how theory is used in specific service contexts and how this research leads to academic knowledge that is managerially relevant. Thus, as applied social science, service research needs to explicitly focus on bridging the theory–praxis gap with midrange theory by incorporating a general theoretic perspective and contextual research. Originality/value: The contribution comes from providing a broader framework to guide the theorizing process that integrates general theoretic perspectives and applied research to develop midrange theory. While general theories operate at the most abstract level of conceptualization, midrange theories are context-specific and applied theory (theories-in-use) is embedded in empirical research.
Katz-Navon, T., R. Vashdi Dana and E. Naveh (2019): The toll of service climate on employees: an emotional labor perspective, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 30(2), pp.105-121
Purpose The existing research on service climate emphasizes its benefits for customers, employees and organizational outcomes. Service climate translates into organizational expectations from service employees to continuously show appropriate emotions when engaging with clients. However, these expectations may also take a toll on employees, who need to regulate their emotions using emotional labor strategies in order to conform to the organization’s expectations. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the service climate and employees’ use of emotional labor strategies, and investigate how service employees’ service knowledge, skills, abilities and other attributes (KSAOs) affect this relationship.Design/methodology/approach In two separate studies, one with a sample including 100 nurses working in 15 wards, and the other comprised of 244 luxury hotel chain employees working in 39 departments, participants were surveyed about their perceptions of the service climate and their use of emotional labor strategies. In addition, each participant’s direct manager assessed his/her service KSAOs.Findings Results demonstrated a positive association between the service climate and the use of surface emotional labor strategies for employees who had limited service KSAOs.Practical implications Organizations may choose to hire service employees based on their service-related KSAOs and develop training and development programs for those who have fewer capabilities in these areas. In addition, organizations may want to rethink the traditional climate-induced emotional display rules and emphasize instead more authentic service encounters in order to lessen the toll that service climate takes on certain employees.Originality/value While service climate depicts the core values and beliefs of the organization about service, and helps employees to translate them into behaviors that promote high service performance, the current paper points to a potential toll it may have on employees well-being due to their use of surface emotional labor strategies.
Nicholls, R. (2020): What goes on between customers? A cross-industry study of customer-to-customer interaction (CCI), Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 30(2), pp.123-147
Purpose This study aims to provide service managers and researchers with a deeper understanding of the direct on-site interactions taking place between customers.Design/methodology/approach Using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT), 284 incidents are analysed to develop a typology of how service customers experience direct on-site CCI.Findings The research reveals a wide range of CCI. A typology consisting of nine distinct categories of CCI emerged: (1) shared use space, (2) assigned space and possessions, (3) information provision, (4) assistance, (5) social conversations, (6) disrespectful attitude, (7) queuing discipline, (8) transaction efficiency and (9) undesired customers and ‘camouflaged customers’. These categories can accommodate a multitude of customer behaviours that impact, negatively or positively, on the service experience of other customers.Research limitations/implications Future studies could be conducted following a more inclusive research design capable of gaining CCI insights from employees and managers.Practical implications Practitioners can use the typology to systematically identify the full range of specific CCI behaviours affecting their businesses. It also assists them in the analysis and understanding of individual C2C (customer-to-customer) interactions. For academics the typology makes available a comprehensive framework to guide future research into CCI.Originality/value The study constitutes the first systematic attempt to classify direct on-site CCI across a wide range of services. The typology, unrestricted by any single-industry bias, is robust and conceptually broad, and therefore highly portable across service industries.
Guidice Rebecca, M., C. Barnes Donald and R. Kinard Brian (2020): Delight spirals: the cause and consequence of employee perceived customer delight, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 30(2), pp.149-170
Purpose With increasing competition in the marketplace, there is a greater push for exceeding customer expectations and delivering customer delight to ensure firm’s success. The main reason for this push is the beneficial outcomes for the firm. More recently, hidden benefits have been identified (i.e. elevated customer emotions can positively impact other customers and employees in the service environment). Adding to this developing literature, the current research develops a model that links antecedents and outcomes to employee perceptions of customer delight.Design/methodology/approach Both field and panel data, as well as multiple statistical methods, were utilized to test the hypothesized relationships. The field data were collected from employees of a national specialty retailer.Findings Service climate and interpersonal influence have a positive impact on customer delight and employee perceptions of customer delight. In turn, employee perceptions of customer delight positively impact harmonious passion and job dedication. In addition, accountability for pleasing customers is a significant moderator of the relationship between employee perceptions of customer delight and harmonious passion, but not between employee perceptions of customer delight and job dedication.Research limitations/implications This research contributes to the ongoing debate on the viability of customer delight as a service standard by investigating the under-studied perspective of the frontline employee.Practical implications This research contributes to the debate on the value of customer delight as a service standard by investigating the under-studied perspective of the frontline employee. A key takeaway for practitioners is how to create and manage the delight spirals that can occur when customers are delighted.Originality/value This is the first study that evaluates antecedents and outcomes of employee-perceived customer delight in a single model. This is also the first study to measure the impact of employee perceptions of customer delight with field data.
Lee, S.-Y., C. Sweeney Jillian and N. Soutar Geoffrey (2020): Emotion regulation in service encounters: are customer displays real?, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 30(2), pp.171-194
Purpose Despite recognition of the importance of emotions and emotion regulation in service encounters, emotion regulation has been generally studied from an employee perspective. This study investigated customer emotion regulation behaviours (CEREBs) in face-to-face service encounters; arguing for a more nuanced approach through an emotion regulation matrix representing the playing up and downplaying of positive or negative emotions. Motivational factors and service-related situational conditions that influence the likelihood of emotion regulation were also examined.Design/methodology/approach Four focus groups and the critical incident technique method were used to obtain data from people who had interacted with service employees within the previous six months.Findings There was support for emotion regulation in the four facets of the emotion regulation matrix. Five CEREB dimensions, including verbal behaviours and facial expressions, were evident. Motivational factors and situational conditions that impacted on customer emotion regulation in service encounters were also identified.Research limitations/implications The findings were based on two qualitative methods. A quantitative approach should be used to further validate the suggested framework.Originality/value Most research on emotion regulation has focused on employees. We examined the phenomenon from a customer viewpoint and in a service encounter context. As customers are not bound by employment rules and conventions, a wider range of emotion regulation behaviours were found. The study used the four-faceted emotion regulation matrix to investigate this, developing a conceptual framework that provides a foundation for future research.
Roy Sanjit, K., V. Shekhar, A. Quazi and M. Quaddus (2020): Consumer engagement behaviors: do service convenience and organizational characteristics matter?, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 30(2), pp.195-232
Purpose The purpose of the study is to investigate the role of service convenience in the relationship between organizational characteristics (such as brand equity, store ambiance, store layout, customer information and employee responsiveness) on customer engagement behaviors (CEBs), including service improvement, customer cooperation, positive word-of-mouth and customer helping customers. It examines two research models, with service convenience as a separate antecedent of CEBs (model A) and as a mediating variable between organizational characteristics and CEBs (model B).Design/methodology/approach Using a positivist paradigm, data were collected from 384 respondents representing the existing customers of grocery retailers based in India via a survey instrument. Data were analyzed using partial least squares (PLS) path modeling.Findings Results demonstrate service convenience as a motivational driver of CEBs. Results also show that the organizational characteristics significantly influence service convenience which in turn impacts CEBs.Practical implications The findings have important implications for store managers in effective management of customers’ time and effort in terms of saving customers’ time and effort as well as motivating customers to elicit their engagement behaviors.Originality/valueThe originality of this paper lies in identifying the impact of organizational characteristics in helping customers to save time and effort in their shopping activities and thereby elicit various types of CEBs. The paper also adds to knowledge by examining the role of service convenience in the nexus between organizational characteristics and CEB types.
Kim, K. and M. A. Baker (2020): The Customer Isn’t Always Right: The Implications of Illegitimate Complaints, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 61(2), pp.113-127
Due to the common business practice of the “customer is always right,” many companies have a risk of dealing with illegitimate complaints. Although illegitimate complaints are a major issue in the hospitality industry, no study has yet examined the impact of illegitimate customer complaining behavior on customers who can witness the complaining and recovery process of others. To fill this gap, this research examines the effects of service recovery aimed at illegitimate customers on customers who witness the complaints’ behavioral reactions (revisit intention, tipping behavior, intention to complain) and the role of emotional expression. A 2 (Service recovery aimed at other customer; good vs. poor) × 2 (Legitimacy of complaining behavior of other customers: legitimate vs. illegitimate) × 2 (Emotional expression: aggressive vs. calm) scenario-based between-subjects factorial experiment is utilized. This research provides evidence that witnessing illegitimate complaints of other customers and the subsequent service recovery aimed at those complainers impacts the behavioral reactions of customers who witness that situation. This study broadens the service recovery literature by incorporating third-party justice theory with illegitimate customer behavior by specifically examining the unique case where the firm is not responsible for the service recovery. In addition, the findings address the benefit to service firms by understanding the impact of witnessing other customers’ service recovery treatment on observers’ subsequent behavioral intentions.
Xie, K. L., L. Kwok and C. Y. Heo (2020): Are Neighbors Friends or Foes? Assessing Airbnb Listings’ Agglomeration Effect in New York City, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 61(2), pp.128-141
This study investigates the agglomeration effect of Airbnb listings in New York City (NYC) and answers two research questions: (a) Does agglomeration benefit or hurt the performance of individual Airbnb listings? (b) How does the effect of agglomeration vary by hosts regarding their operational experience (measured by their capacity and tenure on Airbnb)? A series of econometric analyses using large-scale data of Airbnb in NYC reveal that agglomeration positively affects the revenue performance of each Airbnb listing. In addition, such an effect is strengthened as host tenure spans but mitigated as host capacity expands, indicating a nonsymmetric agglomeration effect across service providers. This research contributes an important but less researched perspective to the home-sharing literature. Managerial implications on leveraging agglomeration for improved revenue performance are provided to Airbnb and its hosts, as well as the hotel chains that want to combat Airbnb’s negative impacts or have already entered the short-term residential rental market to compete head-to-head with Airbnb.
Han, S. and C. K. Anderson (2020): Customer Motivation and Response Bias in Online Reviews, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 61(2), pp.142-153
The voluntary nature of online customer review platforms self-selects customers with strong opinions, resulting in an underreporting bias. However, little research has been conducted on the relationship between postpurchase satisfaction and the propensity to share one’s opinion. The goal of this study is to empirically examine the relationship between customer satisfaction and reporting motivation in online review platforms. The results of this study demonstrate that customer intention to post an online hotel review varies depending on the level of customer satisfaction. Online reviewers are more motivated to post extreme and negative ratings. However, this underreporting bias is mitigated when ratings are generated by reviewers who are familiar with the online review posting process. The relationship between individual familiarity with the review platform and the underreporting bias can be explained using the benefit-cost theory.
Ye, S., L. Wu and S. Paek (2020): Examining the Step-Up Brand Extensions of Budget Hotels: The Reciprocal Spillover Effects, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 61(2), pp.154-169
This study investigates and validates the reciprocal spillover effects model in the upward extensions of budget hotel brands to the midscale market. In particular, the relationships among the components of extended brand performance (i.e., quality, innovativeness, and involvement) and their effects on customer attitude toward parent budget brands are modeled and tested through an empirical study of three leading budget hotel brands in China and their mid-end extensions. Data were collected through an online survey of 790 customers and then analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results confirmed that the three extension performance components can directly or indirectly affect attitude toward parent brands. The findings of this study will assure budget hotel groups that step-up brand extension can be beneficial to their original brands.
Arbelo-Pérez, M., A. Arbelo and P. Pérez-Gómez (2020): Technological Heterogeneity and Hotel Efficiency: A Bayesian Approach, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 61(2), pp.170-182
Hotel efficiency has traditionally been estimated assuming that all hotels use the same production technology. However, in practice, hotels have different technologies, and ignoring this reality can lead to an overestimation of inefficiency in the sector. This article relaxes this assumption and estimates efficiency in the hotel industry using a stochastic frontier model with random coefficients. This methodology allows us to separate firm-specific inefficiencies from potential technological heterogeneity across hotels. The empirical results indicate that the estimated efficiencies differ between the random coefficients model and the fixed coefficients model. These findings support our thesis of technological heterogeneity across hotels.
Taylor, S. and R. B. DiPietro (2020): Assessing Consumer Perceptions of Neolocalism: Making a Case for Microbreweries as Place-Based Brands, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 61(2), pp.183-198
The current study considers microbrewery taproom customers’ perceptions of neolocalism and the influence that these perceptions have on relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction and trust) and the subsequent influences on place attachment and brand attachment. The current study also utilizes a discussion of neolocalism to posit that the current understanding of place-based brands should be extended to consider the social aspects related to a place. Results indicate that perceptions of neolocalism have a significant positive influence on relationship quality, and relationship quality has significant positive influences on place attachment and brand attachment. Practitioner and academic implications of the research are discussed in detail.
McGinley, S. and A. S. Mattila (2020): Overcoming Job Insecurity: Examining Grit as a Predictor, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 61(2), pp.199-212
Advancing a nascent stream of research linking grit to employment retention, this article investigated how job insecurity interacted with a person’s level of grit to predict turnover intentions and career change intentions of hotel managers. Based on a confirmatory factor analysis, grit was found to be a valid higher order construct that had an effect on turnover and career change intentions, and the effect was moderated by feelings of job insecurity. Specifically, when hotel managers reported less job insecurity, grit did not have a significant association with turnover and career change intentions. However, when job insecurity levels increased, hotel managers who were grittier also reported lower levels of turnover and career change intentions.
Arenoe, B. and J.-P. I. van der Rest (2020): Does Willingness to Pay for Rate Conditions Depend on the Booking Window? A Novel Time-Dependent Conjoint Analysis Approach, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 61(2), pp.213-222
This research note draws attention to a novel choice-based conjoint (CBC) model by which guests’ preferences toward hotel room rate conditions can be predicted as a function of time. Through the model, the notion is explored whether willingness to pay for rate conditions (without penalty) depends on the size of the booking window. The modified choice model includes time as an additional “attribute.” This attribute does not present a feature of the choice propositions, but instead is associated with the choice context. An empirical study was carried out to demonstrate the proposed model using three common booking conditions (i.e., free cancelation, free date change, pay on departure). The results show significant and positive time-dependent mean components for cancelation and date change conditions. Despite a limited sample size, all significant effects have expected directions (no parameter reversals) providing evidence of the robustness of the model. The results indicate that the ability to cancel or change a booking is preferred more when the booking window is bigger. Accordingly, as the time period between the advanced purchase and intended date of arrival increases, the willingness to pay for rate conditions also increases. This finding has major practical implications for price and revenue optimization. Limitations of the proposed time-dependent model are discussed.
Li, J., M. Predic and M. I. Gómez (2020): The Effect of Subjective and Objective Tasting Sheet Descriptors on Tasting Room Sales in New York State, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 61(2), pp.223-229
A larger share of U.S. wineries is increasingly relying on direct-to-consumer sales mediated by tasting room experiences to make wine a more accessible and less intimidating product for consumers. Previous literature has shown that more favorably descriptive and evocative notes on menus and labels are associated with higher sales and product appeal in restaurant or retail settings. This study estimates the impacts of different types of tasting sheet descriptors on wine sales in winery tasting rooms, where the consumer decision-making process differs from the restaurant and retail settings. We find that using tasting sheets with only objective descriptors is associated with higher wine sales, in comparison with sheets that (a) use subjective descriptors only or (b) combine subjective and objective descriptors. This study supplements the current literature on the effects of product descriptions on sales performance. The findings suggest that wine tasting rooms should employ only objective tasting descriptors in their tasting sheets.
Addo, P. C., F. Jiaming, N. B. Kulbo and L. Liangqiang (2020): COVID-19: fear appeal favoring purchase behavior towards personal protective equipment, Service Industries Journal, 40(44020), pp.471-490
The 2019 novel coronavirus is a non-segmented positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Coronaviridae-Nidovirales family. We examined the swings in purchase behavior following the outbreak of the COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, and across the world based on the theory of fear appeal. We gathered published statistics (suspected, confirmed, and fatality) on the COVID-19 alongside the purchase of personal protective equipment to examine the swings in online purchase behavior. With a serial mediated analysis, we established that fear appeal is associated with the sharp dynamics in the online purchase as related to the COVID-19. The results confirmed that fear appeal promotes social presence in anticipation of seeking affection, acceptance, and social information. This feeling is a precondition for developing e-loyalty, which promotes purchase behavior. Even though our variables might not be conclusive enough, we believe the findings are fundamental to understanding the swings in the purchase trend in this and any similar situations. (English)
Singh, S., I. Akbani and S. Dhir (2020): Service innovation implementation: a systematic review and research agenda, Service Industries Journal, 40(44020), pp.491-517
This study presents a systematic literature review on the implementation of service innovation in the extant literature. This study conducts a comprehensive review of published articles in the extant literature related to various aspects of service innovation implementation and then critically reviews the extant literature to identify major factors that affect the success of innovation implementation. Research gaps have thus been identified through the lens of theory development, context, characteristics, and methodology (TCCM framework). This article analyzes underexplored areas of research theme in the domain of service innovation implementation, thereby providing directions for future research. (English)
Asaah, J. A., S. Yunfei, K. A. Wadei and K. F. A. Nkrumah (2020): Cultural orientations and product innovation in the Ghanaian banking sector, Service Industries Journal, 40(44020), pp.518-541
The Ghanaian banking sector plays a major role in the socio-economic development of the country. However, the banks are faced with many challenges which include growing customers’ demands, inadequate innovation practices and poor financial performance. With the advent of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs), there are calls for the banks to be more innovative. The paper explores the influence of organizational cultural orientations on product innovation. It also examines the moderating effect of extrinsic motivators on such relationships. Hypotheses were formulated and tested using data collected from the banking sector in Ghana. The findings are that innovate-oriented and compete-oriented cultures have a direct positive influence on product innovation. Both Informational Extrinsic Motivators (IEMs) and Controlling Extrinsic Motivators (CEMs) moderate the relationship between innovate-oriented, compete-oriented cultures and product innovation such that they diminish the positive relationship that exists between such variables. The paper offers theoretical contribution and managerial implications which are discussed. (English)
Van Tonder, E., L. T. De Beer and T. Kuyper (2020): New perspective on informal knowledge sharing in the self-service environment, Service Industries Journal, 40(44020), pp.542-564
Customers informally sharing knowledge with other potential users about self-services may contribute to greater service adoption. However, amid the multitude of contributing factors previously identified, little is known about the extent to which informal knowledge from a fellow customer may inspire the receiving customer to engage in further informal knowledge sharing behaviour regarding self-services and the degree to which consumers’ emotional attachment towards the source could impact on argument success. This study broadens understanding of the matter and offers a new perspective on informal knowledge sharing behaviour in the self-service environment. Data was collected from electronic banking self-service users in South Africa and Germany, and involved a self-administered survey. The research findings explained the underlying process of continuous informal knowledge sharing behaviour concerning self-service technologies from a source credibility and social exchange theory perspective. Furthermore, novel insight is provided on the importance of customers’ emotional attachment to the source in impacting the persuasion process and the extent to which online beliefs of trust and usefulness may affect helping intention as a form of informal knowledge sharing behaviour. (English)
Katırcıoglu, S., N. Ozatac and N. Taspınar (2020): The role of oil prices, growth and inflation in bank profitability, Service Industries Journal, 40(44020), pp.565-584
The present study investigates the long-run equilibrium relationship between banking sector’s profitability and its internal and external determinants such as inflation, growth and oil prices in Turkey. The study adopts two separate models in order to differentiate the direct and indirect effects of oil price changes on bank profitability. Results of the study provide evidence that oil price changes significantly affect the Turkish banking sector’s profitability indirectly through the channels of inflation. Moreover, it is found that bank profitability is affected by oil prices directly and negatively because of the decreased oil-related business lending. The causality test results indicate that there are unidirectional relationships running from oil prices to inflation and from inflation to banking sector’s profitability. It is believed that findings of the study can be generalized for oil importing and developing countries in order to initiate precautions against oil price changes. (English)
Liu, C.-H., A. Y.-p. Chang, J.-S. Horng, S.-F. Chou and Y.-C. Huang (2020): Co-competition, learning, and business strategy for new service development, Service Industries Journal, 40(44020), pp.585-609
Co-competition and business strategy determine tourism organizations’ survival and growth. The current study highlights the following recent findings for the travel agency industry: (a) a co-competition strategy may enhance new service development (NSD) through organizational learning and business strategy; (b) entrepreneurial intention provides the impetus for organizational learning and business strategy improvement; and (c) entrepreneurial intention also strengthens the relationship between business strategy and new service development. This study used 345 surveys from different categories of travel agencies as samples to analyze hypothesis models from Taiwan. The results confirm that travel agencies’ competitive advantages are realized either when a firm maintains good relationships with competitors and adopts a learning orientation or when it deploys the appropriate business competitive strategy and entrepreneurial intention to enable it to offer new services to customers relative to competi-tors. (English)